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2009-2010 Catalog Online

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College Of The Environment and Life Sciences

INDEX

Curriculum Requirements for Majors

Animal Science and Technology

Aquaculture and Fishery Technology

Biology,Biological Sciences,Marine Biology

Clinical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology Manufacturing

Environmental Economics and Management

Environmental Horticulture and Turfgrass Management

Environmental Science and Management

Geology and Geological Oceanography

Geosciences

Landscape Architecture

Marine Affairs

Marine Biology

Microbiology

Nutrition and Dietetics

Resource Economics and Commerce

Wildlife and Conservation Biology

Nancy L. Fey-Yensan, Interim Dean

Dennis W. Nixon, Associate Dean

Richard C. Rhodes III, Associate Dean

The College of the Environment and Life Sciences (CELS) offers undergraduate majors leading to three degrees: the Bachelor of Science (B.S.), the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), and the Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (B.L.A.). The following majors are offered within the B.S. degree program: animal science and technology, aquaculture and fisheries technology, biological sciences, clinical laboratory science, environmental economics and management, environmental horticulture and turfgrass management, environmental science and management, geology and geological oceanography, geosciences, marine affairs, marine biology, microbiology, nutrition and dietetics, resource economics and commerce, and wildlife and conservation biology. Students may also obtain a B.A. in biology or marine affairs, or a B.L.A. in landscape architecture.

Options have been developed within certain majors to help students prepare for graduate study, professional training, or specialized careers. Entering freshmen and transfer students with fewer than 24 credits are admitted to University College and may choose a major in the College of the Environment and Life Sciences at that time.

Undergraduate students from any college may develop a minor from one of the majors offered by the College of the Environment and Life Sciences. Details can be worked out with an appropriate faculty advisor. In addition, most departments have an internship program for combining hands-on professional experience with academic credit.

CELS encourages students in all majors to pursue opportunities such as undergraduate research fellowships, internships, apprenticeships, and field studies that will complement their formal classroom learning.

The Department of Community Planning and Landscape Architecture offers a minor in community planning, which is described on page 36.

Faculty

Many faculty members hold a joint appointment with the Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Service and the Rhode Island Cooperative Extension. These units represent the formal research and public service functions of the college and are funded with federal and state monies.

Biological Sciences: Professor Goldsmith, chairperson. Professors Bengtson, Bibb, Bullock, Fastovsky, Heppner, Kass-Simon, Killingbeck, Koske, A. Roberts, and Webb; Associate Professors Irvine, Katz, Norris, Seibel, and Wilga; Assistant Professors Lane, Preisser, Sartini, and Thornber; Adjunct Professors Carleton, Deacutis, Fogarty, Lauder, and Sanford; Adjunct Associate Professors Cromarty, Ewanchuk, Gemma, Orwig, T. Roberts, and Thursby; Adjunct Assistant Professor Raposa; Professors Emeriti Albert, Beckman, Caroselli, Cobb, Costantino, Goertemiller, Goos, Hammen, Harlin, Hauke, Hyland, Lepper, and Twombly; Associate Professor Emeritus Krueger; Research Professor Hill.

Cell and Molecular Biology: Professor Sperry, chairperson. Professors Bradley, Chandlee, P. Cohen, Goldsmith, Hufnagel, Kausch, D. Nelson, Seemann, and Sun; Associate Professors L. Martin, Mottinger, and J.H. Norris; Assistant Professors N. Howlett and B. Jenkins; Adjunct Professor Mehta; Adjunct Assistant Professors Bauer, Kaplan, and Luo; Professors Emeriti Cabelli, Carpenter, Hartman, Laux, Traxler, Tremblay, and Wood.

Clinical Laboratory Science: Clinical Professor Paquette, director. Adjunct Clinical Professors Allegra and Kenney; Adjunct Clinical Associate Professors Kessimian and Schwartz; Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professors Campbell, Gmuer, Goddu, Heelan, Ingersoll, Lewandowski, and Mello.

Community Planning: Professor Atash, chairperson and program director. Professor Feld; Associate Professors Feldman and Gordon.(Note: Admission to the Community Planning Program has been suspended effective June 30, 2005.)

Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: Professor J.L. Anderson, chairperson. Professors Grigalunas, Opaluch, Roheim, and Swallow; Associate Professor C. Anderson; Assistant Professors E. Uchida and H. Uchida; Adjunct Professors Asche, Edwards, Holland, Johnston, Mazzota, and Shogren; Professors Emeriti Gates, Sutinen, and T. Tyrrell.

Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science: Professor Bengtson, chairperson. Professors Bradley, Costa-Pierce, DeAlteris, Mallilo, Rhodes, and Rice; Associate Professor Gomez-Chiarri; Assistant Professors Petersson and Sartini; Lecturers Jones and Launer; Adjunct Professors Hoey, Klein-McPhee, Musik, and Smolowitz; Adjunct Associate Professors Colwill and Hare; Adjunct Assistant Professors Brumbaugh, Castro, Dudzinski, Hancock, Leavitt, Rheault, Schwartz, and Weatherbee; Adjunct Clinical Professor Serra; Professors Emeriti Chang, McCreight, Nippo, Recksiek, Wing, and Wolke.

Nutrition and Food Sciences: Professor English, chairperson. Professors Greene, C. Lee, and Patnoad; Associate Professors Fey-Yensan and Gerber; Assistant Professor Melanson; Adjunct Associate Professor Sebelia; Adjunct Assistant Professor Pivarnik; Professors Emeriti Caldwell, Constantinides, and Rand; Instructor Handley.

Geosciences: Associate Professor Veeger, chairperson. Professors Boothroyd, Cain, and Fastovsky; Associate Professor Boving; Assistant Professor Savage; Adjunct Professors Burks, Fischer, Hapke, Pockalny, and Spiegelman; Professors Emeriti Hermes and Murray.

Geology and Geological Oceanography: Associate Professor Veeger, undergraduate advisor. The faculty consists of the members of the Department of Geosciences and the marine geology and geophysics faculty of the Graduate School of Oceanography.

Landscape Architecture: Associate Professor Green, director. Professor Simeoni; Associate Professor Sheridan; Adjunct Assistant Professors Bourbonnais and Weygand; Professor Emeritus Hanson.

Marine Affairs: Associate Professor Pollnac, chairperson. Professors Burroughs, Juda, Marti, and D. Nixon; Assistant Professors Macinko and Thompson; Professors Emeriti Alexander, Knauss, and West; Associate Professor Emeritus Krausse.

Natural Resources Science: Professor Paton, chairperson. Professors Amador, August, Forrester, Gold, Golet, Husband, McWilliams, Stolt, and Wang; Assistant Professors F. Meyerson and L. Meyerson; Adjunct Professors Paul and Perez; Adjunct Associate Professors Abedon, Cerrato, Gorres, Groffman, Nowicki, O’Connell, Reed, and Rockwell; Adjunct Assistant Professors Augeri, Dabek, Hollister, Jarecki, Kellogg, Lashomb, McKinney, Milstead, Peters, Rubinstein, Saltonstall, Steele, and Tefft; Professors Emeriti Brown and Wright.

Plant Sciences: Professor Maynard, Interim chairperson. Professors Alm, Casagrande, LeBrun, Mather, Ruemmele, and Sullivan; Associate Professor Englander; Assistant Professors Adkins, Brown, and Mitkowski; Professor-in-Residence Ginsberg; Adjunct Assistant Professors Dellaporta, Gettman, and Gordon; Professors Emeriti Beckman, Hull, Jackson, McGuire, and Mueller; Associate Professor Emeritus Krul; Adjunct Professor Emeritus Taylorson.

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Curriculum Requirements for Majors

Bachelor of Arts. Students who pursue the B.A. in marine affairs or biology must fulfill the Basic Liberal Studies requirements of the College of Arts and Sciences (see Basic Liberal Studies Requirements). Also see the listings under biology and marine affairs in this section.

Bachelor of Science. Most of the college’s B.S. programs require a minimum of 130 credits for graduation, except when specified otherwise under the program description. Required courses come from three categories: general education requirements (36 credits); program requirements (77-85 credits); and free electives (6-12 credits).

The following outline gives the basic general education requirements for all students in the B.S. curriculum within the college. Individual programs may require that specific courses be selected.

English Communication (6 credits): three credits in written communication from courses in Group Cw, and three credits in oral communication from communication studies.

Mathematics (3 credits)

Natural Sciences (6 credits)

Social Sciences (6 credits)

In addition, 15 credits must be chosen from:

Letters (3-6 credits)

Fine Arts and Literature (3-6 credits)

Foreign Language and Culture (3-6 credits)

Total: 36 credits.

Bachelor of Landscape Architecture. For information on the curriculum requirements for URI’s B.L.A. degree, see Landscape Architecture.

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Animal Science and Technology

This major, offered by the Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science, is designed for students interested in applied animal science careers. Options are available to students interested in veterinary medicine, animal sciences, and laboratory animal science. Those students who intend to use their study in animal science as credentials for secondary-school teaching should also enroll in this major.

The major requires a minimum of seven credits in introductory animal science and genetics, three in biology, eight in inorganic chemistry, and three in mathematics. Also required are nine to 12 credits in basic science, 24 credits of concentration courses, and 26-29 credits of supporting electives approved for the major.

Animal Science Option. This option includes animal nutrition, physiology, behavior, and disease. Students will normally emphasize one or more of these areas. A strong preparatory background in the basic sciences is needed. Students in this option seek employment in technical areas and/or continue their studies in specialized graduate programs.

In addition to the requirements of the major, students choosing this option must complete the following basic science requirements: four to eight credits in organic chemistry, three in introductory calculus, and four in microbiology. A course in animal anatomy and physiology is required in the concentration. The remaining credit requirements will be selected from the concentration courses and supporting electives approved for this option.

Animal Management Option. Research techniques and procedures for animal care are emphasized along with a strong background in the sciences. Students with this training and animal experience would be employed in research and teaching facilities as animal technicians, animal technologists, supervisors of animal technicians, and assistant research project leaders.

In addition to the requirements of the major, students must complete the following basic science requirements: four to eight credits in organic chemistry, three in introductory calculus, four in microbiology, and three in statistical methods. Six credits in animal management, three credits in animal anatomy and physiology, and three credits of general nutrition are required in the concentration. The remaining credits will be selected from the concentration courses and supporting electives approved for this option.

Preveterinary Option. This option requires a demonstrated capability in the basic sciences and prepares students for admission to veterinary schools offering the D.V.M. degree. Because admission requirements among schools are not totally uniform and are subject to change, students should determine specific requirements of the schools in which they are interested. Those who are not accepted for veterinary training will be well prepared to pursue graduate programs in animal physiology and health.

In addition to the requirements of the major, students must complete the following basic science requirements: eight-credit, two-semester sequence in organic chemistry, three credits in biochemistry, four in microbiology, eight in general physics, three in introductory calculus, and three in intermediate calculus or statistical methods in research. Four credits in animal anatomy and physiology are required in the concentration. The remaining credits will be selected from the concentration courses and supporting electives approved for this option.

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Aquaculture and Fishery Technology

This major, offered by the Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science (AFS), prepares students for professional or technical careers in aquaculture or fisheries-oriented occupations. It is sufficiently broad to allow for specialization in either fisheries or aquaculture science and technology. Students who demonstrate superior ability in the basic sciences and wish to continue their professional training can select a course curriculum that will both prepare them for graduate school and provide a broad overview in fisheries and aquaculture science and technology.

The major requires a minimum of twelve credits in introductory professional courses including natural resource conservation, fisheries or aquaculture, and resource economics; six to eight credits in animal and plant biology; four credits in general chemistry; four additional credits in general or organic chemistry; and nine to twelve additional credits in basic science selected from an approved course list in the departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Computer Science and Statistics, Mathematics, and Physics. In addition, the major requires 24 credits in concentration courses at the 300 level or above, and 18 credits of the concentration courses must be selected from courses offered by AFS. The additional six credits may be seleted from courses offered in Biological Sciences; Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science; Nutrition and Food Sciences; Marine Affairs; Environmental and Natural Resource Economics; and by the Graduate School of Oceanography. Finally, the program requires 30-36 credits of supporting electives selected from an approved list of courses in the departments of Biological Sciences (botany and zoology); Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science; Marine Affairs; Environmental and Natural Resource Economics; Natural Resources Science; and the Graduate School of Oceanography.

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Biology, Biological Sciences, Marine Biology

These programs are administered by the Department of Biological Sciences. A student may earn either the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in biology or the Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in biological sciences or marine biology. The department also offers the Master of Science (M.S.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees in biological sciences.

BACHELOR OF ARTS (Biology)

Students selecting a major in biology must complete a minimum of 28 credits (maximum 45 credits) in biological sciences including the following courses: BIO 101 and 102 (8), and MIC 201 or 211 (4). They must also complete a minimum of three credits from each of the three lists (A, B, and C) below. The remaining nine credits may be selected from courses in biology and/or microbiology. Students in this major must elect a year of chemistry with laboratories. Up to three credits of independent study or special topics in the following disciplines may be applied toward this bachelor’s degree: AFS, AVS, BCH, BIO, MIC, NRS, and PLS.

List A (Botanical): BIO 311, 321, 323, 332, 346, 348, 365, 418. List B (Zoological): BIO 121, 201, 242, 244, 286, 301, 302, 304, 327, 329, 334, 335, 354, 355, 366, 385, 386, 412, 441, 442, 445, 467, 469, 475. List C (Combination of Botanical and Zoological): BIO 262, 272, 341, 345, 352, 353, 360, 396, 437, 452, 453, 455, 457, 458, 472, 480, 491, 492.

Students in this major must fulfill the Basic Liberal Studies requirements of the College of Arts and Sciences. Students must take either six credits of a modern foreign language or the study of a modern foreign language through the intermediate (104) level. The requirement for a modern foreign language is not met by study abroad or by a culture cluster.

Those wishing to prepare for a professional career in the life sciences should enroll in the B.S. program (description follows).

Students must maintain a 2.00 grade point average in BIO or MIC courses used to meet graduation requirements. A total of 120 credits is required in the B.A. program. At least 42 credits must be in courses numbered 300 or above. Only three credits of 491, 492 may be used for biology elective.

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE

(Biological Sciences)

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE

(Marine Biology)

These curricula provide a foundation in the fundamental principles of biology and marine biology, and are concerned with the application of biological science to problems of modern life. They also provide preparation for graduate work in biological fields including aquatic, environmental, and marine studies, molecular, cellular, and developmental biology, biological oceanography, genetics, and physiology, and preparation for admission to professional schools of medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine.

Students who know their professional goals are encouraged to declare a major as soon as possible to take advantage of help from department advisors. Students must declare their major when leaving University College.

Biological Sciences. A minimum of 35 credits in biology is required and must include BIO 101 and 102 (8). The remaining 27 credits must include at least one course from List A (Botanical) and one course from List B (Zoological). At least three laboratory courses beyond BIO 101 and 102 must be taken, excluding 491, 492, and 495. The 27 credits must include one course from at least four of the following six areas: Cell and Development (BIO 302, 311, 341, 453); Ecology and Evolution (BIO 262, 272); Genetics (BIO 352); Molecular Biology (BIO 437); Organismal Diversity (BIO 304, 321, 323, 354, 365, 366); Physiology (BIO 201, 242/244, 346).

In addition, students must take CHM 101, 102, 112, 114, 226, 227, 228 or 124, 126, and BCH 311; MIC 201 or 211; two semesters of introductory calculus or one semester of calculus and STA 308; PHY 111, 112, 185, and 186 or PHY 203, 204, 273, 274; WRT 104 ,105, or 106 and three additional credits of English communication, three credits of fine arts, three credits of literature; and either six credits of a modern foreign language, or study of a modern foreign language through the intermediate (104) level. The requirement for a modern foreign language is not met by study abroad or a culture cluster. Students must follow University requirements for general education; no area may be reduced.

Students are encouraged to become involved in the department’s research activities by arranging to register for assigned work as Special Problems (491, 492). Only three credits of 491, 492 may be used toward the B.S. degree. Up to three credits of independent study or special topics in the following disciplines may be applied toward this bachelor’s degree: AFS, AVS, BCH, BIO, MIC, NRS, and PLS.

List A (Botanical): BIO 311, 321, 323, 332, 346, 348, 365, 418. List B (Zoological): BIO 121, 201, 242, 244, 301, 302, 304, 327, 329, 334, 335, 354, 355, 366, 385, 386, 441, 445, 467, 469, 475. List C (Combination of Botanical and Zoological): BIO 262, 272, 341, 345, 352, 353, 360, 396, 437, 452, 453, 455, 457, 458, 472, 480, 491, 492.

Students are strongly urged to consult the biological sciences advisors to obtain detailed programs of the various subdisciplinary paths through the department most suited to their particular career goals.

Students must maintain a 2.00 grade point average in BIO courses used to meet graduation requirements. A total of 130 credits is required for graduation.

Marine Biology.

The Major. A minimum of 36 credits in biological sciences is required for the major and must include BIO 101, 102, 130, and 360. Of the remaining 23 credits, 12 credits must be earned by selecting one course from at least four of the following six areas: Cell and Developmental Biology (BIO 302, 311, 341, 453); Ecology and Evolution (BIO 262, 272); Genetics (BIO 352); Molecular Biology (BIO 437); Organismal Diversity (BIO 304, 321, 323, 354, 365, 366); Physiology (BIO 201, 346). The remaining 11 credits must be selected from the following, with no more than three credits of Special Problems to be applied to this requirement: BIO 345, 354, 355, 365, 412, 418, 441, 455, 457, 458, 469, 475, 491, 492, 495, 563; OCG 420, 576. Up to three credits of independent study or special topics in the following disciplines may be applied toward this bachelor’s degree: AFS, AVS, BCH, BIO, MIC, NRS, and PLS. Students must take at least three laboratory courses in biological sciences (BIO) in addition to BIO 101 and 102 and excluding BIO 491, 492, and 495.

In addition, the student must take CHM 101, 102, 112, 114, and either CHM 226, 227, and 228 or CHM 124, 126, and BCH 311; two semesters of introductory calculus or one semester of calculus and STA 308; OCG 401 or 451; PHY 111, 112, 185, 186; WRT 104, 105, or 106 and three additional credits of English communication, three credits of fine arts, three credits of literature; and either six credits of a modern foreign language, or study of a modern foreign language through the intermediate (104) level. The requirement for a modern foreign language is not met by study abroad or by a culture cluster. Students must follow University requirements for general education; no area may be reduced.

Students must maintain a 2.00 grade point average in BIO courses used to meet graduation requirements. A total of 130 credits is required for graduation.

The Minor. The minor in marine biology requires at least 20 credits, including 8 credits of General Biology (BIO 101 and 102, or equivalent, e.g., Advanced Placement), Marine Biology (BIO 360), and at least 8 additional credits at the 200-level or above, chosen from among courses counted as marine biology electives for the B.S. degree in marine biology. A maximum of 3 credits in research (e.g., BIO 491, 492) may be counted towards the minor. At least half of the credits for the minor must be earned at URI. A minimum GPA of 2.00 must be earned in the credits required for the minor. Application for a minor must be filed with the coordinator of the Marine Biology Program prior to the completion of the first semester of the senior year.

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Clinical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology Manufacturing

This major, offered by the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, is designed to prepare students for applied careers in the medical laboratory, biomedical, and biotechnology sciences, as well as to prepare students for graduate or professional school. The department also offers the Master of Science (M.S.) degree.

There are two options in the program: Clinical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology Manufacturing. Students in both are required to take these courses: BIO 101 and 102, 121, and 242; CHM 101, 102, 112, 114, 226, 227, and 228 (or 124 and 126 for the Biotechnology option); PHY 111 and 185; MTC 102; MTH 111, 131, or 141; CSC 101 or 201; STA 307 or 309. A total of 130 credits is required for graduation.

Clinical Laboratory Science Option. During the first three years, emphasis is on general education and on basic courses in the biological, chemical, and quantitative sciences. The courses of the senior year are taught off campus by staff from affiliated hospital schools of clinical laboratory science. These schools are accredited by the National Accreditation Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences. The senior year is an 11-month clinical internship that begins in late July. It is taken at one or more of the following clinical agencies: Rhode Island Hospital, Miriam Hospital, Fatima Hospital, and the Rhode Island Blood Center. The clinical program includes lecture and laboratory instruction in clinical chemistry, clinical microbiology, hematology, immunology, immunohematology, and molecular pathology, and prepares the student for national certification examinations and state licensure.

Applicants to this curriculum should have completed 60 credits and taken most of the required courses by the end of the sophomore year. Students are selected for clinical internships by the departmental curriculum committee and by program officials of the hospital schools. Since the number of students is limited, interested students should consult with the program director early in their college career, so they will be familiar with the requirements and application procedures. Flexibility in the curriculum permits students who are not admitted to the program to fulfill requirements for the Bachelor of Science degree in one of several other concentrations in the department. Students with a degree in a health profession, life science, or related field may apply to the clinical internship as a fifth year of study.

Required courses: MTC 102, 405, 406, 407, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, and 483; MIC 201 or 211, 333, 432; BCH 311 and 437.

Freshman YearFirst semester: 14-15 credits

CHM 101, 102 (4); BIO 101 or 102 (4); MTH 111 or 131 (3) or 141 (4); and one general education requirement (3).

Second semester: 16 credits

CHM 112, 114 (4); BIO 101 or 102 (4); CSC 101 or 201 (4); MTC 102 (1); and one general education requirement (3).

Sophomore YearFirst semester: 18 credits

BIO 121 (4); CHM 227 (3); PHY 111, 185 (4); MIC 211 or 201 (4); and general education requirements (3).

Second semester: 17 credits

BIO 242 (3); CHM 226, 228 (5); general education requirements (6) and free elective (3).

Junior YearFirst semester: 15 credits

MIC 333 (3); MTC 483 (3); and general education requirements (9).

Second semester: 12 credits

MIC 432 (3); BCH 311 (3); STA 307 or 308 (3); and electives (3).

Senior YearFirst semester: 17 credits

MTC 405 (2), 409 (4), 411 (4), 413 (2), 415 (3), and 451 (2).

Second semester: 15 credits

MTC 406 (2), 410 (4), 412 (4), 414 (2), and 416 (3).

Biotechnology Manufacturing Option. This option is designed to prepare students for professional careers in the biotechnology and biomedical industries in the areas of manufacturing, processing, operations, and technical support. This option is based at the Providence Campus and includes a 12-credit clinical internship at a regional biotechnology or biomedical company. Students should be aware that internships may be limited in number and are awarded on a competitive basis. Students are selected by the departmental curriculum committee and by program officials of affiliated companies. Students interested in this option should consult with the program director early in their college career, so that they will be familiar with the requirements and application procedures. Flexibility in the curriculum permits students who are not admitted to the program to fulfill requirements for the Bachelor of Science degree in one of several other concentrations in the department.

Required courses: MTC 195, 199; MIC 190 and 201 or 211; BCH 311, 437, and 453. The program is structured to provide intensive professional and clinical training in the first year of the program so the student may enter the professional field while still pursuing the degree. The remainder of the program may be completed on a full-time or reduced-time basis. The electives, in consultation with the program director and appropriate department officials, may be utilized to create personalized specializations and/or minors in management, training and development, information technology, bioengineering, and related areas. The recommended program for the first year is:

Freshman YearFirst Semester: 16 credits

BIO 101 (4); CHM 101 (3) and 102 (1); MIC 190 (3) and 211 (4); and URI 101 (1).

Second Semester: 17 credits

BIO 102 (4), 242 (3); CHM 124, 126 (4); MTC 102 and 195 (3); WRT 333 (3).

Summer Session: 12 credits

MTC 199 (12)

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Environmental Economics and Management

This major prepares students for professional careers in the public and private sector that address environmental and natural resource management, business, or public policy. This interdisciplinary major is offered jointly by the Department of Environmental and Natural Resource Economics and the Department of Natural Resources Science. Students develop a foundation in both natural and social sciences to understand the interactions between human society and our natural or environmental resources. Environmental economics and management majors seek careers that address the interface between the economic system and the ecological or environmental systems. For example, economic incentives and values can drive individual decisions to use forest, land, water, or air resources, which can in turn cause ecosystem management problems. Public officials, nonprofit organizations, and private businesses need professionals to integrate the ecological and natural science with the economic science aspects of their organizations. Such professionals play an important role in coordinating an interdisciplinary team to address such complex problems. Graduates gain an understanding of both natural sciences and the economy.

The degree requires a minimum of 120 credit hours, including a minimum of 24 credit hours in the concentration credits for this interdisciplinary major. The program is designed as a blend of the existing majors of environmental science and management and resource economics and commerce. In addition to satisfying the general education requirements, students need 12 credits in introductory professional courses, including natural resource conservation, introductory resource economics, introductory soils, and resource management. As part of the basic science requirements, majors must complete eight credits in biological sciences (four in general botany, four in general zoology); three credits in introductory ecology; four credits in introductory physics; four credits in physical geology; four credits each in organic and inorganic chemistry; three credits in introductory calculus; and three credits in introductory statistics. Within the 24-credit concentration, students are required to take two courses in forestry and wildlife and two courses in water and soil for a minimum of 12 credits in these natural sciences. A minimum of 12 concentration credits are required in environmental and resource economics (listed under Resource Economics, REN), including economics for environmental resource management and policy and economics of land and water resources, as well as two other courses selected according to the student’s particular interests. The major also requires a minimum of nine credits in communication skills beyond the general education requirements. Finally, students may choose a minimum of nine credits in supporting electives and six credits in free electives.

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Environmental Horticulture and Turfgrass Management

The major in environmental horticulture and turfgrass management, offered by the Department of Plant Sciences, is intended to educate students in the sciences, both natural and social, in preparation for professional careers in the many fields of environmental horticulture. Graduates of this program may pursue careers as landscape contractors, golf course superintendents, directors of park systems and arboreta, proprietors of garden centers and floral shops, plant propagators, nursery personnel, vegetable and fruit growers, managers of lawn service firms, horticultural therapists, and technical representatives for seed, equipment, and chemical companies, to name just a few of the opportunities available. Others may enter graduate school and pursue careers in research and education in both public and private institutions. This program has as its unifying theme the culture and use of plants that enhance the human environment.

URI’s Department of Plant Sciences operates 50 acres of turfgrass, horticulture, and plant science research and education farm centers. The C. Richard Skogley Turfgrass Center is the oldest turfgrass research and teaching program in the U.S. Also included in the department’s facilities are five research laboratories, controlled environment facilities, a greenhouse complex, and a biotechnology initiative for hands-on opportunities. The department is closely allied with the URI Botanical Gardens and E.P Christopher Arboretum.

Depending on the area of specialization, graduates can meet the standards of several certification organizations. Environmental horticulture students qualify for certification with the Rhode Island Nursery and Landscape Association and International Society for Arboriculture. Graduates specializing in turfgrass management qualify for certification as turfgrass managers or turfgrass specialists with the American Registry of Certified Professionals in Agronomy, Crops, and Soils, Ltd. of the American Society of Agronomy. These same graduates also meet the requirements for registration with the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America.

The major requires 24 credits of preprofessional natural science courses, including six in general education; 40 credits in concentration courses; and 18 credits of supporting electives selected from an approved course list, with permission of the advisor. Included among these electives are business and management courses, as well as advanced offerings in plant science, botany, and soil science. Many students minor in business management.

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Environmental Science and Management

The major in environmental science and management, offered by the Department of Natural Resources Science, prepares undergraduate students for professional careers in the public and private sectors of natural resources management. Flexible course requirements allow students to develop individual areas of concentration and prepare for a variety of positions in environmental management after graduation. This major is also suitable for students who wish to become certified as teachers of environmental science and natural resources at the secondary level. In addition, the program provides a solid background for graduate study in several more specialized environmental science disciplines. Environmental science majors may meet the educational requirements for state and federal employment as biologists, natural resource specialists, environmental scientists, and other classifications.

The major requires 13 credits of professional courses, which include natural resource conservation, seminar in natural resources, resource economics, introductory soil science, and conservation of populations and ecosystems. As part of the basic science requirements, environmental science and management majors must complete six to eight credits in introductory biological sciences; three credits in introductory ecology; four credits in introductory physics; four credits in physical geology; three to four credits in introductory biochemistry, introductory microbiology, or geomorphology; eight credits in introductory chemistry; four credits in organic chemistry; three credits in introductory calculus; and three credits in introductory statistics. Required concentration courses (26 credits) must be taken at the 300 level or above; at least 21 credits must be selected from courses offered by the Department of Natural Resources Science.

In addition, one course must be selected from each of the following groups: biological and ecological science; watershed and environmental quality; methods in environmental science; natural resources management; and land use management. These and the remaining concentration credits should be selected from courses offered by the Department of Natural Resources Science or from an approved list of courses; at least nine credits must be selected from NRS courses. Supporting electives (18-21 credits) must be selected from an approved list of courses, mostly at the 300 and 400 levels. Up to 24 credits of experiential learning courses may be taken toward satisfying concentration (letter grade courses only) and supporting elective requirements. NRS 402, 403, 423, 425, 450, 452, 522, and 524 are the capstone experiences in this major.

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Geology and Geological Oceanography

This major, offered by the Department of Geosciences and the Graduate School of Oceanography, includes a comprehensive background in geology and a solid introduction to geological oceanography. The curriculum includes the full set of chemistry, physics, biology, and mathematics courses required for a B.S. in geosciences (see below). Students in the program will be advised jointly by geosciences and oceanography faculty members.

A senior research project will be taken in the Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO) as OCG 493 or 494 [capstones], under the direction of a GSO faculty member. Three courses in oceanography—OCG 401 or 451, 540, and one additional OCG course at the 400 level or above selected by the student in conjunction with the advisor—will provide the student with a good overview of his or her intended field, and also relieve the student of two required courses if he or she continues on to study oceanography at the graduate level at the University of Rhode Island. In addition to this, the student may find opportunities for summer employment or participation in oceanographic research cruises after his or her junior year.

Students completing this program of study will be well prepared to pursue careers in either conventional geology or geological oceanography. Technical positions in private or government oceanographic laboratories are available for geological oceanographers with bachelor’s degrees. Students who pursue graduate studies can expect to find a high demand for geological oceanographers with advanced degrees. Students entering the URI Graduate School of Oceanography from this program will have a significant head start compared with those entering from most other undergraduate institutions.

The following core courses are required: GEO 103 (4), 204 (4), 210 (4), 320 (4), 370 (4), 450 (4), 483 (4), either an approved summer field camp (GEO 480 [capstone]) for a four to six credits or an approved field experience (prior approval required), two approved geosciences electives (at the 200-level or above); OCG 401 (3) or 451 (3), OCG 540 (3), OCG 493 or 494 [capstones] (3); and one additional OCG course at the 400 level or above. Students must also take the following supporting course work: MTH 131 (3) or 141 (4); MTH 132 (3) or 142 (4); BIO 101 (4) and 102 (4); CHM 101 (3), 102 (1) and 112 (3), 114 (1); CSC 201 (4) or STA 308 (3); PHY 111 (3), 185 (1) or 213, 285 (4); and PHY 112 (3), 186 (1) or 214, 286 (4).

A total of 126 credits is required for graduation.

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Geosciences

The major in geosciences, offered by the Department of Geosciences, is designed as a foundation for careers in the earth sciences. The federal government identifies GEO 204, 210, 320, 370, 450, and supporting sciences as a minimum background for geologists. Students in this program elect one of the following three options: environmental geology, sedimentary geology, or petrology/tectonics. These options offer preparation for further work in areas such as environmental geology, mineral and energy resources, hydrogeology, sedimentology, coastal geology, igneous and metamorphic petrology, geochemistry, structural geology, and tectonics.

Students interested in teaching earth science should contact the University’s Department of Geosciences for details about a cooperative program with the Department of Education.

All B.S. majors are required to complete the following geosciences courses: 103 (4), 204 (4), 210 (4), 320 (4), 370 (4), 450 (4), 483 (4), two courses within one of the options listed below, two additional approved geosciences electives (at the 200-level or above), and either an approved summer field camp (GEO 480 [capstone]) for four to six credits or an approved field experience (prior approval required). The field camp is normally taken following the junior year. Students must also take the following supporting course work: MTH 131 (3) or 141 (4); MTH 132 (3) or 142 (4); BIO 101 (4) and 102 (4); CHM 101 (3), 102 (1) and 112 (3), 114 (1); CSC 201 (4) or STA 308 (3); PHY 111 (3), 185 (1) or 213, 285 (4); and PHY 112 (3), 186 (1) or 214, 286 (4).

Students in the Geosciences program select one of the following options:

Environmental Geology Option. Emphasizes the study of geology as it pertains to the environment, including hydrogeology (ground-water resources and water quality) and the recognition and reduction of effects of geologic hazards (coastal erosion, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes). Students must take two of the following: GEO 277 (3), 465 or 485 (3), 468 (4), 482 (4), 484 (4), 515 (3), 568 (3), 577 (3), or 583 (3).

Sedimentary Option. Emphasizes the study and interpretation of depositional environments, both in the present and in the geologic record, including the study of sedimentary processes, paleontology, the reconstruction of paleoenvironments, and stratigraphy. Students must take two of the following: GEO 277 (3), 250 (4), 465 (3), 468 (4), 515 (3), 550 (3), or 555 (3).

Petrology/Tectonics Option. Emphasizes the study of igneous and metamorphic processes through geochemistry, petrography, structural analysis, and geophysics, leading to interpretations of rock petrogenesis and earth history. Students must take two of the following: GEO 465 (3), 530 (4), 531 (3), 580 (3), 581 (3), or CHM 431.

GEO 480, 497 and 499 are capstone experiences available for this major.

A total of 126 credits is required for graduation.

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Landscape Architecture

Landscape architecture is a curriculum leading to the Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (B.L.A.) degree. Accredited by the American Society of Landscape Architects, the curriculum is designed to prepare undergraduates for professional careers in the public and private sectors of landscape architecture that involve the design, planning, preservation, and restoration of the landscape by applying both art and science to achieve the best use of our land resources.

Landscape architects design and plan parks, recreation areas, new communities and residential developments, urban spaces, open spaces and rooftop landscapes, commercial centers, resort developments, transportation facilities, corporate and institutional centers, industrial parks, and waterfront developments. Their professional skills may also be used to preserve natural, historic, and coastal landscape projects.

The requirements of this curriculum include preparation in the basic arts and sciences. The major includes 57 credits of program courses; 22-24 credits of supporting requirements; and 13-15 credits of approved supporting electives through which a student may obtain additional preparation in art, natural resources, community planning, business, or plant sciences. Students are required to own a laptop computer by the time they enter the program. Specifications are available from the Landscape Architecture Program Office or online at http://www.uri.edu/cels/lar. Graduation requirements include a minimum of 130 credits maintaining a grade point average of at least 2.50 and no landscape architecture grades below a C.

URI’s Landscape Architecture Program (LAR) is oversubscribed. Accreditation standards regarding staff and facilities limit the present student acceptance into the major to 20 per year and require a competitive admission policy. Students will be reviewed twice during the course of their studies: first for admission into the lower-division design sequence and again for acceptance into the upper-division B.L.A. major.

Admission into the lower-division design sequence courses (LAR 243 and 244) requires departmental approval. Approximately 50 percent of the openings are filled by students entering as incoming freshmen and/or transfer students through Undergraduate Admission (subject to maintaining a minimum 2.50 grade point average with no grades in LAR courses below a C). These students begin the design sequence in the fall semester of their second year at URI. The remaining openings are filled by matriculated students through an application accompanied by a transcript of grades and, where appropriate, a portfolio. Applications and transcripts are evaluated in February/March each year for acceptance into the lower-division design sequence in the following fall. In order to encourage minority applicants, one available space is set aside each year for a minority applicant who meets the minimal program qualifications.

Acceptance into the upper-division (junior-senior) landscape architecture major is based on submission and review of a portfolio of lower-division work, academic transcript, and a written essay. A maximum of 20 students per year are accepted into the upper-division B.L.A. curriculum. Eligible applicants for the upper division are students enrolled in LAR 244, repeat applicants, and students wishing to transfer directly into the upper division from other landscape architecture programs. Only students who have completed comparable lower-division courses in programs that have been accredited by the American Society of Landscape Architects will be allowed to compete for these upper-division positions. Such transfer applicants must first be accepted into the University by the Office of Undergraduate Admission and have their portfolio, transcripts, and essays submitted to the director of the landscape architecture program before February 20 preceding the fall semester in which they wish to enroll. Students will be notified of their acceptance into the upper-division program before preregistration for fall classes.

Interested students should discuss entrance probabilities with the program advisor.

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Marine Affairs

URI’s Department of Marine Affairs offers the following degrees: B.A., B.S., M.A., M.M.A. (Master of Marine Affairs), and Ph.D.

The B.A. and B.S. in marine affairs focus on coastal and ocean areas and examine environments, resources, and uses from a variety of perspectives. Topics include coastal and fisheries management, ports and maritime transportation, ocean policy and ocean law.

A marine affairs major establishes a background for careers in the public or private sectors in a wide variety of marine-related fields. Typical areas of employment include positions in government concerned with coastal zone, environmental, or fishery management, and marine transportation. In the private sectors, students have secured positions in environmental consulting firms, marine insurance, public interest nongovernmental organizations, marinas, ports, and companies involved in shipping. The major serves well as an educational background for continued study in law, especially environmental, fishery, coastal zone, admiralty, and ocean law. Students have also entered graduate and professional programs in environmental management, public administration, community planning, marine affairs, and related fields.

Students in the Department of Marine Affairs who participate in the New England Regional Student Program must maintain a 2.8 G.P.A. and take at least one MAF course per year to retain their New England regional tuition status. Failure to meet these objectives will result in suspension of the reduced tuition privilege. Reinstatement may occur if the student meets these requirements for one year after the time of the suspension.

Bachelor of Arts in Marine Affairs. Students who obtain the B.A. in marine affairs must fulfill the Basic Liberal Studies requirements of the College of Arts and Sciences (page 50).

Students selecting this field are required to complete at least 30 credits (maximum 45) in marine affairs as follows.

All of the following courses (12 credits): MAF 100, 120, 220, and 410 [capstone]. Five of the following courses (15 credits): MAF 312, 415, 320, 330, 413, 434, 461, 465, 471, 472, 475, 484, and 499. One additional MAF course (three credits) must be taken to complete the required 30 credits in the degree.

In addition, students must also take STA 308 and OCG 123 or 401 (if OCG 123 is taken, it may also be used toward fulfilling the Basic Liberal Studies Natural Sciences requirement).

A total of 120 credits is required for graduation. At least 42 of these credits must be in courses numbered 300 or above.

Bachelor of Science in Marine Affairs. Students selecting this field must complete at least 30 hours in marine affairs with the following required MAF courses: MAF 100, 120, 220, 410 [capstone], 482; and five of the following courses: MAF 312, 320, 330, 413, 415, 434, 461, 465, 471, 472, 475, 484, and 499.

In addition to the above requirements, students must take BIO 101; OCG 123 or 401; MTH 111 or 131; and WRT 333 (3).

Students must also select a total of 18 credits from the following, of which nine must be at the 300 level or above: AFS 102, 201, 210, 211, 321/322, 332, 362, 432, 483; BIO 141, 252, 345, 355, 360, 418, 455/457; CHM 103, 112, 124/126; EEC 105, 110, 205, 310, 345, 356, 410, 432, 435, 440, 441, 456, 460; GEO 100, 103, 210, 240, 277, 370, 450, 483; NRS 223, 361, 406, 410, 423, 424, 440, 461; NRS/GEO 482; OCE 101, 215, 307, 310, 311; PHY 109/110, 111/185, 112/186, 130, 213/285, 214/286, 306; STA 308, 409, 412, 413.

A total of 126 credits is required for graduation.

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Marine Biology

See Marine Biology.

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Microbiology

This major, offered by the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, meets the guidelines of the American Society for Microbiology. It will prepare students for work in a wide variety of scientific areas including molecular genetics, biotechnology, and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as many other areas of biological sciences. A strong background in chemistry is emphasized, providing excellent preparation for graduate or professional school. An option in biotechnology is also available.

Students who develop a strong interest in the clinical aspect of microbiology can easily move to URI’s Clinical Laboratory Sciences program. This department also offers a Master of Science degree in cell and molecular biology, and a Ph.D. in biological sciences.

A minimum of 30 credits in microbiology is required, including MIC 333; the capstone experiences 413, 414, 415, 416, and 495; and one course selected from MIC 412, 422, 432, or 576. Students majoring in microbiology may include any course in microbiology; BIO 327, 341, 432, 437, and 465. Students planning to attend graduate school are advised to take MTH 131 and 132, or 141 and 142. In addition, they must take BIO 101, 102, and 352; CHM 101, 102, 112, 114, 212, 226, 227, and 228; BCH 311; PHY 213, 214, 285, and 286 or 111, 112, 185, and 186; and MTH 131 or 141 and one of the following: MTH 111, 132, 142; CSC 201; or STA 308.

Note: CHM 229 and 230, which are offered in summer only, may be substituted for CHM 226.

A total of 130 credits is required for graduation.

Biotechnology Option. Students in the microbiology major may elect the biotechnology option, which offers preparation for further work in research and development, biotechnology operations, quality assurance, and regulatory affairs. This option emphasizes a broad and interdisciplinary overview of the biotechnology industry, and provides students with an academic background in microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, and molecular genetics to prepare them for careers at several levels of industry.

In addition to the courses specified for the major, the following biochemistry and microbiology courses are required: BIO 341, 437; MIC 190, 211, 333, 413, 415, 499 and six additional credits of MIC or BCH course work. MIC 414, 416, and 495 are not required for students pursuing this option.

The required internship for this option (MIC 499) is conducted with the cooperation of local members of the biotechnology industry and may be pursued on a full- or part-time basis. Students should be aware that internships may be limited in number and are awarded on a competitive basis; therefore those interested in the biotechnology option should consult with their advisors early in their college career.

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Nutrition and Dietetics

This major prepares undergraduates for careers in nutrition-related fields. Two options, dietetics and nutrition, are available.

The major requires 11 credits in introductory professional courses including NFS 110, 207, 227, 236, and 276; 21-22 credits in sciences (four in general chemistry, four in organic chemistry, seven-eight in biology, four in microbiology, and three in biochemistry), three credits in statistics, and 25-29 credits in the concentration including the following courses: NFS 394, 395, 410, 441, 443, and 458 [capstone]. WRT 104 or 105, or 106, and COM 101 are required and may be used to fulfill general education requirements. There are 19-24 credits of supporting electives and 12 credits of free electives. A total of 123 credits is required for graduation.

Students will be admitted to the Nutrition and Dietetics major in the College of the Environment and Life Sciences after completing a minimum of 30 credits. Students must complete the following courses prior to admission: 1) NFS 207, 2) either CHM 103/105 and CHM 124/126 or BIO 121 and BIO 242, and 3) either COM 100 or WRT 104/105. A minimum grade of C in NFS 207 and C- in the remaining courses is required for admission. In order to graduate, students will need to have earned a minimum of C in each of the required NFS courses and a minimum of C- in each of the required program courses. The required NFS courses for the Dietetics Option include: NFS 110, 207, 227, 236, 276, 337, 375, 376, 394, 395, 410, 441, 443, 444, and 458; and the required program courses include: CHM 103, 105, 124, and 126; BCH 311; BIO 121; BIO 242; MIC 201; WRT 104/105; COM 100; STA 220; SOC 100; and PSY 113. The required NFS courses for the Nutrition Option include: NFS 110, 207, 227, 236, 276, 394, 395, 410, 441, 443, 458, and two additional NFS concentration courses; the required program courses include: CHM 103, 105, 124, and 126; BCH 311; BIO 102 or 121; BIO 242; MIC 201; WRT 104/105; COM 100; and STA 220

Dietetics Option. This option is required of all students planning to become registered dietitians. URI’s dietetics program is accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), 120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60606, 312-899-0040, ext. 5400. This option provides students with the academic background in clinical, community, and administrative dietetics. In addition to the core courses specified for the major, the following courses are required: NFS 337, 375, 376, 444 and BUS 341. SOC 100 and PSY 113 are also required and may be used to fulfill general education requirements. Students are encouraged to use supporting elective and free elective courses to study disciplines related to the field.

After completing their B.S. requirements, students can qualify for the professional title of Registered Dietitian by completing supervised practice requirements and passing a national exam. The supervised practice requirement is met by completing an ADA-accredited dietetic internship program available to students on a competitive basis nationwide. Internships may be combined with graduate programs in universities leading to an advanced degree. Students completing academic and supervised practice requirements become eligible to take the national registration examination.

Nutrition Option. This option is for students who want to study nutrition but do not plan to become registered dietitians. Using this option, students have the opportunity to design their own programs by combining training in nutrition with other areas that interest them. In addition to the courses specified for the major, students must complete a minimum of 3 credits in NFS 491/2 or NFS 451, and 9 credits selected from advanced-level NFS courses. Students must also select a “minor” field of study. To satisfy this requirement, students can complete any one of the Universityapproved minors, or complete 18 credits in a curriculum other than NFS. Examples of possible minors are health promotion, exercise science, psychology, international development, journalism, biology, and general business. Alternatively, with approval from the department, students may complete 18 credits related to their interests or career goals selected from several disciplines. Students may, for example, select courses to prepare for graduate school or meet basic admission requirements for medical school.

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Resource Economics and Commerce

This major, offered by the Department of Environmental and Natural Resource Economics (with courses listed under Environmental Economics), provides students with a broad education focused on resource economics, economics, and natural resources sciences. In the private sector, careers can focus on the production, marketing, and distribution of natural resource commodities such as fisheries and agricultural products, timber, and petroleum, or on recreation and tourism. The major can also prepare the student for working with the conservation and management of natural resources at the state and national levels, for advanced professional programs in environmental law or community planning, or for graduate study in resource and agricultural economics.

EEC 105 and NRS 100 are prerequisites for this major, which requires a total of 125 credits. Ten credits in basic sciences are required, including four in general chemistry and six in general biology. Fifteen credits are required in supporting sciences including three in computer science and six in mathematics, physics, genetics, plant physiology, population biology, introductory ecology, microbiology, general and organic chemistry, or physical geology. The remaining six credits in supporting sciences can be selected from courses in applied biology, oceanography, mathematics, chemistry, computer science, or statistics. Introductory calculus is strongly suggested. Twenty-four credits in concentration courses are required at the 300 level or above, including 15 credits in resource economics and three credits in microeconomic theory.

Twenty-six credits are required in supporting electives, which must include three credits in communication skills. The student normally selects three credits in communication in addition to the general education requirements. The remaining credits in concentration courses and supporting electives should be selected in consultation with a faculty advisor.

Students have considerable flexibility in choosing courses in the College of the Environment and Life Sciences and other colleges at the University. All students are required to take sufficient course work in the physical and biological sciences to gain familiarity with the resource area in which they are interested.

Students interested in water resources, for example, would select appropriate courses from natural resources science and chemistry. Students interested in fisheries marketing and trade should select course work in business, fisheries science and technology, and nutrition and food sciences. Students intending to pursue graduate studies in resource economics or economics should select course work in economic theory, mathematics, and statistics.

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Wildlife and Conservation Biology

The major in wildlife and conservation biology, offered through the Department of Natural Resources Science, prepares students for professional careers in the public and private sectors of wildlife biology. In addition, the major provides a solid background for graduate study. Wildlife biologists are professionals concerned with the scientific management of the earth’s wildlife species and their habitats. They work in the areas of preservation, conservation, and management of wildlife species. Graduates can become Certified Wildlife Biologists (CWBs) who are recognized by the Wildlife Society, an international professional organization. In addition, wildlife majors meet the educational requirements for state and federal employment in the wildlife profession.

The major requires 13 credits of professional courses, which include natural resource conservation, seminar in natural resources, resource economics, introductory soil science, and conservation of populations and ecosystems. As part of the basic science requirements, wildlife majors must complete six to eight credits in introductory biological sciences; three credits in introductory ecology; four credits in introductory physics; four credits in physical geology; four credits in introductory chemistry; four credits in organic chemistry; three credits in introductory calculus; and three credits in introductory statistics. Required concentration courses (22-23 credits) include three credits in the principles of wildlife management; three credits in wildlife field techniques; four credits in field botany and taxonomy; three credits in wetland wildlife or nongame and endangered species management; and nine to ten credits from an approved list of concentration courses that may include, for example, field ornithology, biology of mammals, vertebrate biology, animal behavior, introduction to forest science, wetland wildlife management, wetland ecology, and wildlife biometrics. Supporting electives (31-34 credits) must be selected from the approved list. We encourage students to complete course work so they can become certified wildlife biologists. The list includes the following upper-division course work: three credits in botany; six credits in zoology; six credits in resources policy or administration, environmental law, or land use planning; and six credits in communications. An additional 10-11 credits of supporting electives must be selected from concentration electives, or from other 300- or 400-level natural resources science courses. Up to 24 credits of experiential learning courses may be taken toward satisfying concentration (letter grade courses only) and supporting elective requirements.

NRS 402 and 403, or 423 and 425, or 522 and 524 are the capstone experiences in this major.

Minors in Natural Resources Science

The following minors are University-approved. Students may also design their own minors; see Minor Fields of Study.

GIS and Remote Sensing. This minor field of specialization provides students in-depth training in the use of GIS (geographic information system) and remote sensing technology and application of geospatial data processing methods to environmental problem solving. Students who declare a minor in GIS and remote sensing must complete 18 credit hours consisting of the following core courses: NRS 409, 410, 415, 516, and 522. The remaining credits may be taken from NRS 423, 524, 533, or CPL 511. Students minoring in GIS and remote sensing are encouraged to take a capstone course that allows them to apply their analytical skills in a real-world application.

Soil Environmental Science. This minor field of specialization provides students in-depth training in the application of soils information to solve environmental problems and issues. Students fulfilling the requirements of the soil environmental science minor meet the qualifications for basic membership in the Society of Soil Scientists of Southern New England, are eligible for certification as soil scientists under the American Registry of Certified Professional Soil Scientists, and meet the requirements for federal job listings under soil scientists. Students who declare a minor in soil environmental science must complete 18 credits from the following courses: NRS 212, 312, 351, 361, 412, 426, 450, 452, 471, 510, 567, or GEO 515. Students minoring in soil environmental science are encouraged to take a capstone course that allows them to apply their analytical skills in a real-world application.

Wildlife and Conservation Biology. This minor field of specialization provides students in-depth training in the principles of managing wildlife populations and their habitats. Students who declare a minor in wildlife and conservation biology must complete at least 18 credits of NRS courses within the WCB major curriculum, at least 12 of these 18 credits must be at the 200 level or higher, and all courses in the minor must be taken for a letter grade. Students minoring in wildlife and conservation biology are encouraged to take a capstone course that allows them to apply their analytical skills in a real-world application.

A major in this program is also available. See above.


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