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College of the Environment and Lifesciences

INDEX


Curriculum Requirements for Majors

Animal Science and Technology

Aquaculture and Fishery Technology

BiologyBiological SciencesMarine Biology

Environmental and Natural Resource Economics

Environmental Economics and Management

Environmental Horticulture and Turfgrass Management

Environmental Science and Management

Geology and Geological Oceanography

Landscape Architecture

Marine Affairs

Marine Biology

Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology Manufacturing

Microbiology

Nutrition and Dietetics

Resource Economics and Commerce

Wildlife and Conservation Biology

John Kirby, Dean

Richard C. Rhodes III, Associate Dean

Anne I. Veeger, Associate Dean

Kimberly M. Anderson, Assistant Dean

In the College of the Environment and Life Sciences (CELS), we strive for excellence in teaching, research, and service. Our mission is to provide our students with the skills, knowledge, and insight needed to meet the challenges of today's world; address contemporary problems through innovative, relevant scholarly research; and, in the tradition of our Land Grant and Sea Grant heritage, extend our research-based knowledge to the local, state, and global community. While the interests and expertise of the faculty, students, and professional staff of the College are diverse, ranging from the most basic aspects of the biological systems that make up life on earth to the complexity of terrestrial and marine ecosystems, the CELS community is united in its concern for and dedication to the enhancement of human health and well-being, environmental sustainability, and stewardship of the earth's resources.

Our new Center for Biotechnology and Life Sciences and the URI Coastal Research Institute house state-of-the-art teaching facilities, high-tech research labs, a genomics center, and an aquarium facility, all designed to meet the needs of the College's programs in biotechnology and the environmental, life, and health sciences.

The College of the Environment and Life Sciences (CELS) offers undergraduate majors leading to three degrees: the Bachelor of Science (B.S.), the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), and the Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (B.L.A.). The following majors are offered within the B.S. degree program: animal science and technology, aquaculture and fishery technology, biological sciences, environmental and natural resource economics, environmental horticulture and turfgrass management, environmental science and management, geology and geological oceanography, marine affairs, marine biology, medical laboratory science and biotechnology manufacturing, microbiology, nutrition and dietetics, and wildlife and conservation biology. Students may also obtain a B.A. in biology or marine affairs, or a B.L.A. in landscape architecture.

Options have been developed within most majors to help students prepare for graduate study, professional training, or specialized careers. Entering freshmen and transfer students with fewer than 24 credits are admitted to University College and may choose a major in the College of the Environment and Life Sciences at that time.

Undergraduate students from any college may develop a minor from one of the majors offered by the College of the Environment and Life Sciences. See details later in this section, as well as "Interdepartmental Minors." Details can be worked out with an appropriate faculty advisor. In addition, most departments have an internship program for combining hands-on professional experience with academic credit.

CELS encourages students in all majors to pursue opportunities such as undergraduate research fellowships, internships, apprenticeships, and field studies that will complement their formal classroom learning.

Faculty

Biological Sciences: Professor Goldsmith, chairperson. Professors Bengtson, Bullock, Fastovsky, Kass-Simon, Killingbeck, Koske, A. Roberts, and Webb; Associate Professors Irvine, Katz, Norris, Seibel, Thornber, and Wilga; Assistant Professors Kolbe, Lane, Moseman-Valtierra, Preisser, and Sartini; Adjunct Professors Carleton, Deacutis, Fogarty, Henry, Lauder, Sanford, and Schneider; Adjunct Associate Professors Bailey, Cromarty, Ewanchuk, Gemma, Orwig, T. Roberts, and Thursby; Adjunct Assistant Professor Raposa; Professors Emeriti Albert, Beckman, Bibb, Caroselli, Cobb, Costantino, Goertemiller, Harlin, Hauke, Heppner, Hyland, and Twombly; Associate Professor Emeritus Krueger; Research Professor Hill.

Cell and Molecular Biology: Professor Sperry, chairperson. Professors Bradley, Chandlee, P. Cohen, Goldsmith, Hufnagel, Kausch, D. Nelson, and Sun; Associate Professors L.Martin, and J.H. Norris; Assistant Professors N. Howlett and B. Jenkins; Adjunct Professor Mehta; Research Professors A. DeGroot, L. DeGroot, and Spero; Assistant Research Professor Moise; Professors Emeriti Cabelli, Hartman, Laux, Traxler, and Tremblay. Associate Professor Emeritus Mottinger.

Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: Professor Opaluch, chairperson. Professors J.L. Anderon and Roheim; Associate Professor C. Anderson; Assistant Professors Lang, Sproul, E. Uchida, and H. Uchida; Adjunct Professors Asche, Holland, Johnston, Mazzota, Shogren and Swallow; Professors Emeriti Grigalunas, Sutinen, and Tyrrell.

Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science: Professor Bengtson, chairperson. Professors Bradley, Costa-Pierce, DeAlteris, Gomez-Chiarri, Mallilo, Rhodes, and Rice; Assistant Professors Petersson and Sartini; Lecturers Jones and Launer; Adjunct Professors Hoey, Klein-McPhee, Musik, and Smolowitz; Adjunct Associate Professors Colwill and Hare; Adjunct Assistant Professors Brumbaugh, Castro, Dudzinski, Hancock, Leavitt, Rheault, Schwartz, and Weatherbee; Adjunct Clinical Professor Serra; Professors Emeriti Chang, McCreight, Nippo, Recksiek, and Wolke.

Geosciences: Professor Fastovsky, chairperson. Professor Boving; Assistant Professor Cardace and Savage; Adjunct Professors Burks, Fischer, Hapke, Pockalny, and Spiegelman; Professors Emeriti Boothroyd, Cain, Hermes, and Murray.Landscape Architecture:

Landscape Architecture: Professor Green, chairperson. Professors Atash, Sheridan, and Simeoni; Associate Professor Gordon; Adjunct Assistant Professors Carter, Kelley, Peters, and Weygand; Professor Emeritus Hanson.

Marine Affairs: Associate Professor Thompson, chairperson. Professors Burroughs, Juda, Marti, and D. Nixon; Associate Professors Dalton and Macinko; Research Professor Pollnac; Professors Emeriti Alexander, Knauss, and West; Associate Professor Emeritus Krausse.

Medical Laboratory Science: Clinical Professor Paquette, director. Clinical Associate Professors Bozzi, Klitz, and Uhnak. Adjunct Clinical Professors Gmuer, Pisharodi, and Sweeney; Adjunct Clinical Associate Professors Cataldo and Mello; Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professors Braga, Ferreira, Hoffman, Martineau, and Smeal.

Natural Resources Science: Professor McWilliams, chairperson. Professors Amador, August, Forrester, Gold, Husband, Paton, Stolt, and Wang; Associate Professor Meyerson; Assistant Professor Karraker; Adjunct Professors Paul and Perez; Adjunct Associate Professors Abedon, Cerrato, Daehler, Gorres, Groffman, Nowicki, O’Connell, Reed, and Rockwell; Adjunct Assistant Professors Augeri, Bergondo, Buffum, Dabek, Eisenbies, Eldridge, Farnsworth, Gayaldo, Hollister, Jarecki, Kellogg, Lashomb, McKinney, Milstead, Peters, Pierce, Rubinstein, Saltonstall, Steele, and Tefft; Professors Emeriti Brown, Golet, and Wright.

Nutrition and Food Sciences: Professor Greene, chairperson. Professors English and Patnoad; Associate Professors Gerber and Melanson; Assistant Professor Lofgren; Adjunct Professor Sebelia; Adjunct Associate Professor Pivarnik; Professor Emeriti Caldwell, Constantinides, Lee, and Rand; Instructors Handley and Koness.

Plant Sciences and Entomology: Professor Maynard, chairperson. Professors Alm, Casagrande, LeBrun, Mather, Ruemmele, and Sullivan; Associate Professors Englander and Mitkowski; Assistant Professor Brown; Professor-in-Residence Ginsberg; Adjunct Assistant Professor Gettman; Professors Emeriti Beckman, Hull, and Jackson; Associate Professor Emeritus Krul.

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Curriculum Requirements for Majors

All Programs. CELS students need not only a 2.00 GPA to graduate, but also a minimum of a 2.00 GPA in their major concentration area (see specific program requirements) to qualify for graduation.

Bachelor of Arts. Students who pursue the B.A. in marine affairs or biology must fulfill the Basic Liberal Studies requirements of the College of Arts and Sciences (see “Basic Liberal Studies Requirements”). Also see the listings under biology and marine affairs in this section.

Bachelor of Science. Most of the college’s B.S. programs require a minimum of 120 credits for graduation, except when specified otherwise under the program description. Required courses come from three categories: general education requirements (36 credits); program requirements (77-85 credits); and free electives (6-12 credits).

The following outline gives the basic general education requirements for all students in the B.S. curriculum within the college. Individual programs may require that specific courses be selected.

English Communication (6 credits): three credits in written communication from courses in Group Cw, and three credits in oral communication from communication studies.

Mathematics (3 credits)

Natural Sciences (6 credits)

Social Sciences (6 credits)

In addition, 15 credits must be chosen from:

Letters (3-6 credits)

Fine Arts and Literature (3-6 credits)

Foreign Language and Culture (3-6 credits)Total: 36 credits.

Total: 36 credits.

Bachelor of Landscape Architecture. For information on the curriculum requirements for URI’s B.L.A. degree, see “Landscape Architecture” later in this section.

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Animal Science and Technology

This major, offered by the Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science, is designed for students interested in applied animal science careers. Options are available to students interested in veterinary medicine, animal sciences, and animal management.

The major requires AVS 101,102, 110, 331, and 333 plus option-specific courses as indicated below. Also required are 19-48 credits in basic science, 25-26 credits of concentration courses, and 8-34 credits ofsupporting electives approved for the major.

Animal Science Option. This option includes animal nutrition, physiology, behavior, and disease. Students will normally emphasize one or more of these areas. A strong preparatory background in the basic sciences is needed. Students in this option seek employment in technical areas and/or continue their studies in specialized graduate programs.

In addition to the requirements of the major, students choosing this option must complete the following basic science requirements: AVS 420 or BIO 352; BIO 101, 102; CHM 101, 102, 112, 114; CHM 124, 126 or CHM 226, 227, 228; MIC 201or 211; and MTH 131 and STA 307 or 308. The remaining credit requirements will be selected from the concentration courses and supporting electives approved for this option.

Animal Management Option. Research techniques and procedures for animal care are emphasized along with a strong background in the sciences. Students with this training and animal experience would be employed in research and teaching facilities as animal technicians, animal technologists, supervisors of animal technicians, and assistant research project leaders.

In addition to the requirements of the major, students must complete the following basic science requirements: BIO 101; CHM 101, 102, 112, 114 or CHM 103, 105, 124, 126; MTH 107 or higher. Twelve credits in animal management are required in the concentration. The remaining credits will be selected from the concentration courses and supporting electives approved for this option.

Preveterinary Option. This option requires a demonstrated capability in the basic sciences and prepares students for admission to veterinary schools offering the D.V.M. degree. Because admission requirements among schools are not totally uniform and are subject to change, students should determine specific requirements of the schools in which they are interested. Those who are not accepted for veterinary training will be well prepared to pursue graduate programs in animal physiology and health.

In addition to the requirements of the major, students must complete the following basic science requirements: BCH 311; BIO 101, 102, 352; CHM 101, 102, 112, 114, 226, 227, 228; MIC 201 or 211; PHY 111, 112, 185, 186; MTH 131 and STA 307 or STA 308 or 409. The remaining credits will be selected from the concentration courses and supporting electives approved for this option.

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Aquaculture and Fishery Technology

This major, offered by the Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science (AFS), prepares students for professional or technical careers in aquaculture or fisheries-oriented occupations. It is sufficiently broad to allow for specialization in either fisheries or aquaculture science and technology. Students who demonstrate superior ability in the basic sciences and wish to continue their professional training can select a course curriculum that will both prepare them for graduate school and provide a broad overview in fisheries and aquaculture science and technology.

The major requires a minimum of twelve credits in introductory professional courses including natural resource conservation, fisheries or aquaculture, and resource economics; six to eight credits in animal and plant biology; four credits in general chemistry; four additional credits in general or organic chemistry; and nine to twelve additional credits in basic science selected from an approved course list in the departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Computer Science and Statistics, Mathematics, and Physics. In addition, the major requires 24 credits in concentration courses at the 300 level or above, and 18 credits of the concentration courses must be selected from courses offered by AFS. The additional six credits may be seleted from courses offered in Biological Sciences; Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science; Nutrition and Food Sciences; Marine Affairs; Environmental and Natural Resource Economics; and by the Graduate School of Oceanography. Finally, the program requires 30-36 credits of supporting electives selected from an approved list of courses in the departments of Biological Sciences; Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science; Marine Affairs; Environmental and Natural Resource Economics; Natural Resources Science; and the Graduate School of Oceanography. A total of 130 credits is required for graduation.

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BiologyBiological SciencesMarine Biology

These programs are administered by the Department of Biological Sciences. A student may earn either the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in biology or the Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in biological sciences or marine biology. The department also offers the Master of Science (M.S.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees in biological and environmental sciences.

BACHELOR OF ARTS (Biology)

Students selecting a major in biology must complete a minimum of 28 credits (maximum 45 credits) in biological sciences including the following courses: BIO 101 and 102 (8), and MIC 201 or 211 (4). They must also complete a minimum of three credits from each of the three lists (A, B, and C) below. The remaining nine credits may be selected from courses in biology and/or microbiology. Students in this major must elect a year of chemistry with laboratories. Up to three credits of independent study or special topics in the following disciplines may be applied toward this bachelor's degree: AFS, AVS, BCH, BIO, MIC, NRS, and /PLS.

List A (plant biology): BIO 311, 321, 323, 332, 346, 348, 365, 418. List B (animal biology): BIO 121, 201, 242, 244, 286, 301, 302, 304, 327, 329, 334, 335, 354, 355, 366, 385, 386, 412, 441, 442, 445, 467, 469, 475. List C (integrative biology): BIO 262, 272, 341, 345, 352, 353, 360, 396, 437, 452, 453, 455, 457, 458, 472, 480, 491, 492.

Students in this major must fulfill the Basic Liberal Studies requirements of the College of Arts and Sciences. Students must take either six credits of a modern foreign language or the study of a modern foreign language through the intermediate (104) level. The requirement for a modern foreign language is not met by study abroad or by a culture cluster.

Those wishing to prepare for a professional career in the life sciences should enroll in the B.S. program (description follows).

Students must maintain a 2.00 grade point average in BIO or MIC courses used to meet graduation requirements. A total of 120 credits is required in the B.A. program. At least 42 credits must be in courses numbered 300 or above. Only three credits of 491, 492 may be used for biology elective.

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE

(Biological /Sciences)

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE

(Marine Biology)

These curricula provide a foundation in the fundamental principles of biology and marine biology, and are concerned with the application of biological science to problems of modern life. They also provide preparation for graduate work in biological fields including aquatic, environmental, and marine studies; molecular, cellular, and developmental biology; biological oceanography; genetics and physiology, and preparation for admission to professional schools of medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine.

Students who know their professional goals are encouraged to declare a major as soon as possible to take advantage of help from department advisors. Students must declare their major when leaving University College.

Biological Sciences. A minimum of 35 credits in biology is required and must include BIO 101 and 102 (8). The remaining 27 credits must include at least one course from List A (plant biology) and one course from List B (animal biology). At least three laboratory courses beyond BIO 101 and 102 must be taken, excluding 491, 492, and 495. The 27 credits must include at least one course from each of four of the following six areas: Cell and Development (BIO 302, 311, 341, 453); Ecology and Evolution (BIO 262, 272); Genetics (BIO 352); Molecular Biology (BIO 437); Organismal Diversity (BIO 304, 321, 323, 354, 365, 366); Physiology (BIO 201, 242/244, 346).

In addition, students must take CHM 101, 102, 112, 114, or CHM 191,192, and CHM 226, 227, 228 or 124, 126, and BCH 311; MIC 201 or 211; two semesters of introductory calculus (MTH 131, 132 or 141, 142) or one semester of calculus and STA 308; PHY 111, 112, 185, 186 or PHY 203, 204, 273, 274; and WRT 104, 105, or 106 and three additional credits of English communication, (oral or written) used to meet CELS general education requirements..

Students are encouraged to participate in research through Special Problems (491, 492). Up to three credits of 491, 492, or Independent Study or Special Topics in the following disciplines may be applied toward the major requirements: AFS, AVS, BCH, BIO, MIC, NRS, and PLS.

List A (plant biology): BIO 311, 321, 323, 332, 346, 348, 365, 418. List B (animal biology): BIO 121, 201, 242, 244, 301, 302, 304, 327, 329, 334, 335, 354, 355, 366, 385, 386, 412, 441, 445, 467, 469, 475.

Students are strongly urged to consult the biological sciences advisors to obtain detailed programs of the various subdisciplinary paths through the department most suited to their particular career goals.

Students must maintain a 2.00 grade point average in BIO courses used to meet graduation requirements. A total of 120 credits is required for graduation.

Marine Biology.

The Major. A minimum of 36 credits in biological sciences is required for the major and must include BIO 101, 102, 130, and 360. The remaining 23 credits must include at least one course from each of four of the following six areas: Cell and Developmental Biology (BIO 302, 311, 341, 453); Ecology and Evolution (BIO 262, 272); Genetics (BIO 352); Molecular Biology (BIO 437); Organismal Diversity (BIO 304, 321, 323, 354, 365, 366; MIC 211); Physiology (BIO 201, 346). The balance of the 36 credits must be selected from the following Marine Biology electives: AFS 486; BIO 345, 354, 355, 365, 412, 418, 441, 455, 457, 469, 475, 491, 492, 495, 563; OCG 420, 576. Students are encouraged to participate in research through Special Problems (491, 492, or 495). Up to three credits of BIO 491, 492, 495, or Independent Study or Special Topics in the following disciplines may be applied toward this requirement: AFS, AVS, BCH, BIO, MIC, NRS, andPLS. Students must take at least two laboratory courses in biological sciences (BIO 360) in addition to BIO 101, 102 and excluding BIO 491, 492, and 495.

In addition, the student must take CHM 101, 102, 112, 114 or CHM 191, 192, and CHM 226, 227, and 228 or CHM 124, 126, and BCH 311; two semesters of introductory calculus (MTH 131, 132 or MTH 141, 142) or one semester of calculus and STA 308; OCG 401 or 451; PHY 111, 112, 185, 186 (or PHY 203, 204, 273, 274); WRT 104, 105, or 106 and three additional credits of English Communication, (oral or written) used to meet the College general education requirements.

Students must maintain a 2.00 grade point average in BIO courses used to meet graduation requirements. A total of 120 credits is required for graduation.

The Minor. The minor in marine biology requires at least 20 credits, including 8 credits of General Biology (BIO 101 and 102, or equivalent, e.g., Advanced Placement), Marine Biology (BIO 360), and at least 8 additional credits at the 200-level or above, chosen from among courses counted as marine biology electives for the B.S. degree in marine biology. A maximum of 3 credits in research (e.g., BIO 491, 492) may be counted towards the minor. At least half of the credits for the minor must be earned at URI. A minimum GPA of 2.00 must be earned in the credits required for the minor. Application for a minor must be filed with the coordinator of the Marine Biology Program prior to the completion of the first semester of the senior year.

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Environmental and Natural Resource Economics

How can we create a sustainable society that protects the environment while maintaining a high standard of living? Why have humans caused environmental degradation on local, regional, and global scales, and what can we do about it? Public officials, nonprofit organizations, and private businesses need professionals who can answers these questions in order to design a new sustainable world, and environmental economics provides analytical tools that can help answer these questions.

The environmental economics major integrates the natural sciences with economics to provide to understand why many of Earth's natural resources are under threat and how we can design policies to address these threats. This major teaches students to weigh options and make important decisions concerning the protection, restoration, development, and use of our natural resources. The major prepares students for graduate school, or for careers in the public and private sector that address environmental and natural resource management, business, or public policy. Professionals in these fields play an important role in coordinating interdisciplinary teams to address such complex problems. Graduates gain an understanding of both natural sciences and the economy.

The degree requires a minimum of 120 credits, including 24 credits in concentration credits. In addition to satisfying the general education requirements, students need 13 credits in introductory professional courses, including natural resource conservation, introductory resource economics, introductory geology, and resource management. A minimum of ten credits in basic sciences are required, including four in general chemistry and six in general biology. The major also requires a minimum of three credits in communication skills beyond the general education requirements.

The major is comprised of two options: Green Markets and Sustainability (GMS) and Environmental Economics and Management (EEM). The two options are discussed below.

Option 1: Green Markets and Sustainability (GMS). This option is for students who wish to develop a deep understanding of social and economic systems as they relate to a sustainable environment. This option is designed to provide considerable flexibility so students can focus their studies to meet their professional goals. Twenty-four credits in concentration courses are required at the 300 level or above, including 15 credits in environmental and natural resource economics, three credits in microeconomic theory, and six credits in other concentration courses selected by students, in consultation with their advisors. A total of nine credits are required in supporting sciences, which can be selected from a broad range of subjects including computer science, mathematics, statistics, physics, genetics, plant physiology, population biology, introductory ecology, microbiology, chemistry, physical geology, or oceanography. An additional 24 credits in supporting electives allows the student either to develop a closely related focus area (e.g., green business) or to sample from a broad set of relevant courses. Introductory calculus is strongly recommended, especially for students who are considering going to graduate school.

Option 2: Environmental Economics and Management (EEM). This option is for students who wish a balanced focus on environmental sciences and environmental economics. The option requires an additional eight credits of basic sciences, including at least six credits in biological sciences (three in general botany, three in general zoology); three credits in introductory ecology; four credits in introductory physics; four credits each in organic and inorganic chemistry; three credits in introductory calculus; and three credits in introductory statistics. The 24-credit concentration includes a minimum of 12 concentration credits in environmental and resource economics (listed under EEC), including economics for environmental resource management (EEC 310) and policy and economics of land and water resources (EEC 432), as well as two other courses selected to meet the student’s particular interests. Students are also required to take a minimum of 12 concentration credits selected from ecology, soils and watersheds, and geosciences. Students choose a minimum of nine credits in supporting electives and six credits in free electives.

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Environmental Economics and Management

See “Environmental and Natural Resource Economics.”

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Environmental Horticulture and Turfgrass Management

The major in environmental horticulture and turfgrass management, offered by the Department of Plant Sciences and Entomology, prepares undergraduates for professional careers in the many public and private sectors of horticulture. Graduates of this program pursue careers ranging from landscape contractor, golf course superintendent, director of parks, botanical gardens or arboreta, garden center or floral shop proprietor, plant propagator, nursery production manager, vegetable or fruit grower, lawn service manager, horticultural therapist, or technical representative for seed, equipment, and chemical companies, to name just a few of the opportunities available. Other graduates enter graduate school and pursue careers in research and education at public and private institutions. This program has as its unifying theme the sustainable culture and use of plants for amenity or food. A new track in sustainable agriculture draws on courses in sustainable vegetable and fruit production, animal science and soil management, and prepares student for careers supporting sustainable farming and food systems.

Graduates can meet the standards of several certification organizations. Students in the environmental horticulture track qualify for certification with the Rhode Island Nursery and Landscape Association and the International Society for Arboriculture. Graduates of the turfgrass management track qualify for certification as turfgrass managers or turfgrass specialists with the American Registry of Certified Professionals in Agronomy, Crops, and Soils, Ltd. of the American Society of Agronomy. These same graduates also meet the requirements for registration with the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America.

The major requires a total of 120 credits: 24 credits of pre-professional natural sciences; 30 credits in concentration courses; and 15 credits of supporting electives selected from an approved course list. Many students also minor in business management.

The department manages over 50 acres of turfgrass, horticulture, and agronomy farms for teaching, research, and outreach. The C. Richard Skogley Turfgrass Center is the oldest turfgrass research/teaching program in the U.S. The department also maintains an 18,000 square foot controlled environment greenhouse complex for hands-on learning and research. These facilities are closely allied with the URI Botanical Gardens and E.P Christopher Arboretum.

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Environmental Science and Management

The major in environmental science and management, offered by the Department of Natural Resources Science, prepares undergraduate students for professional careers in the public and private sectors of natural resources management. Flexible course requirements allow students to develop individual areas of concentration and prepare for a variety of positions in environmental management after graduation. This major is also suitable for students who wish to become certified as teachers of environmental science and natural resources at the secondary level. In addition, the program provides a solid background for graduate study in several more specialized environmental science disciplines. Environmental science majors may meet the educational requirements for state and federal employment as biologists, natural resource specialists, environmental scientists, and other classifications.

The major requires 17 credits of professional courses, which include natural resource conservation, seminar in natural resources, physical geology, resource economics, introductory soil science, and conservation of populations and ecosystems. As part of the basic science requirements, environmental science and management majors must complete eight credits in introductory biological sciences; four credits in introductory physics; three to four credits in introductory biochemistry, introductory microbiology, or geomorphology; four credits in introductory chemistry; four credits in organic chemistry; three credits in introductory calculus; and three credits in introductory statistics. Required concentration courses (24 credits) must be taken at the 300 level or above; at least 21 credits must be selected from courses offered by the Department of Natural Resources Science.

In addition, one course must be selected from each of the following groups: biological and ecological science; watershed and environmental quality; methods in environmental science; natural resources management; and land use management. These and the remaining concentration credits should be selected from courses offered by the Department of Natural Resources Science or from an approved list of courses. Up to six credits of letter grade experiential learning courses may be taken as concentration courses.

At least nine credits must be selected from NRS courses. Supporting electives (20-21 credits) must be selected from an approved list of courses, mostly at the 300 and 400 levels. At least nine credits must be selected from NRS courses. Up to 15 credits of experiential learning courses may be taken toward satisfying concentration (letter grade courses only) and supporting elective requirements. NRS 402, 403, 423, 425, 450, 452, 522, and 524 are the capstone experiences in this major.

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Geology and Geological Oceanography

The Department of Geosciences offers a single degree: the B.S. in geology and geological oceanography, with two options, a geology option and a geological oceanography option. This degree is designed for students with an interest in earth, environmental, or oceanographic science careers or affiliated fields such as environmental law and earth/environmental science education. The two options allow students to take specialty courses focusing on a range of geoscience topics such as environmental geology/hydrogeology, sedimentology/stratigraphy/paleontology, coastal geology/oceanography, geochemistry/petrology, or geophysics/tectonics, and supporting elective courses chosen from geosciences, natural resources science, environmental economics, and oceanography. Students may use their supporting electives to pursue in-depth study within a given field or to broaden their interdisciplinary perspective. Students are required to complete an interdisciplinary core of introductory courses including GEO 103-Understanding Earth (4), NRS 100-Natural Resource Conservation (3), and EEC 105-Introduction to Resource Economics (3); geosciences core courses including GEO 204-Problem-solving in Earth History (4), GEO 210-Landforms: Origins and Evolution (4), GEO 320-Earth Materials (4), GEO 370-Structure of the Earth (4), and GEO 450-Introduction to Sedimentary Geology (4); supporting science/mathematics courses including MTH 131 (3) or 141 (4); MTH 132 (3) or 142 (4); BIO 101 (4), BIO 102 (4) or GEO/BIO 272 (4) or CHM 124 (3), 126 (1); CHM 101 (3), 102 (1), 112 (3), 114 (1); STA 308 (3) or 409 (3); PHY 111 (3), 185 (1) or 203 (3), 273 (1), and PHY 112 (3), 186 (1) or 204 (3), 274 (1); and 12 credits of supporting electives taken at the 200-level or above from GEO, NRS, EEC, OCG or from another program with prior approval from the GEO department chair.

GEO 480, 497, and 499 and OCG 493/494 are capstone experiences available for this major.

A total of 120 credits and a 2.00 gradepoint average within the major are required for graduation.

Geology Option. This option allows students the flexibility to define their own area of concentration within the geosciences. Students selecting this option complete GEO 483—Hydrogeology (4) and two additional GEO electives at the 200-level or above chosen in consultation with their advisor. Example areas of concentration include environmental geology/hydrogeology, sedimentary geology/stratigraphy, and geophysics/tectonics.

Geological Oceanography Option. Students completing this option will be well prepared to pursue careers in either conventional geology/earth science or geological oceanography. Students selecting this option complete three upper-level oceanography courses including OCG 401—General Oceanography (3) or OCG 451—Oceanographic Science (3), OCG 440 or 540—Geological Oceanography (3), and an OCG elective taken at the 400-level or above; and a 3-credit senior research project, OCG 493 or 494—Special Problems and Independent Study in Oceanography (3), taken in the Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO), under the direction of a GSO faculty member. Students entering the URI GraduateSchool of Oceanography from this program will have a significant head start compared with those entering from most other undergraduate institutions.

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Landscape Architecture

Landscape architecture is a 126-credit curriculum leading to the Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (B.L.A.) degree. Accredited by the American Society of Landscape Architects, the curriculum is designed to prepare undergraduates for professional careers in the public and private sectors of landscape architecture. Landscape architecture is a profession that involves the design, planning, preservation, and restoration of the landscape by applying art, science, and technology to achieve the best use of our land resources.

Landscape architects design and plan parks, plazas, and recreation areas; residential, institutional, corporate, and commercial developments; transportation facilities, waterfronts, resorts and new towns; green roofs, green streets, and sustainable landscapes. Their professional skills may also be used to preserve natural, historic, and coastal landscapes.

The requirements of this curriculum include preparation in the basic arts and sciences. The major includes 63-64 credits of professional core classes (LAR 101, 201, 202, 243, 244, 300, 301, 302, 343, 344, 345, 346, 353, 354, 443, 444, 445, 447, 450); 28-29 credits of supporting requirements (ART 207; GEG 101; PLS 150; CHM 100, 101 or 103 or PHY 109, or GEO 100, or 103; CPL 410, MTH 111, CPL 434, 538; PLS 200); and 7-8 credits of supporting electives. Students will also take general education classes and six credits of free electives. Students accepted into landscape architecture are required to maintain a grade point average of at least 2.50 with no landscape architecture grades below a letter C. Students failing to maintain this minimum may be removed from the program and required to reapply once this requirement is satisfied. Students are required to own a laptop computer by the time they enter the program. Specifications are available from the Landscape Architecture Program Office or online at http://uri.edu/cels/lar.

URI's Landscape Architecture Program (LAR) is oversubscribed. Accreditation standards regarding staff and facilities limit the number of students accepted into the major to 20 per year and require a competitive admission policy. While enrolled in the program, students will be reviewed twice during the course of their studies: first for admission into the lower-division design sequence and again for acceptance into the upper-division B.L.A. major.

Admission into the lower-division design sequence courses (LAR 243 and 244) requires departmental approval. Approximately 50 percent of the openings are filled by students entering as incoming freshmen and who maintain a minimum 2.50 grade point average with no grades in LAR courses below a C. The remaining openings are filled by matriculated students wishing to transfer into landscape architecture. These students are required to apply to the program and to submit a transcript of grades, an essay, and, where appropriate, a portfolio. Applications and transcripts are evaluated in February/March each year for acceptance into the lower-division design sequence in the following fall. In order to encourage minority applicants, one available space is set aside each year for a minority applicant who meets the minimal program qualifications.

Acceptance into the upper division (junior design sequence) is based on submission and review of a portfolio of lower-division work, current academic transcript, and written essay. A maximum of 20 students per year are accepted into the upper-division B.L.A. curriculum. Eligible applicants for upper division are students enrolled in LAR 244/repeat applicants, and students wishing to transfer directly into the upper division from other accredited landscape architecture programs. Only students who have completed comparable lower-division courses in external programs will be allowed to compete for these upper-division positions. Such transfer applicants must first be accepted into the University by the Office of Admission and have their portfolios, transcripts, and essays submitted to the director of the landscape architecture program before February 21 preceding the fall semester in which they wish to enroll. Students will be notified of their acceptance following department review.Interested students should contact the program advisor or department chair.

Interested students should contact the program advisor or department chair.

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Marine Affairs

URI's Department of Marine Affairs offers the following degrees: B.A., B.S., M.A., M.M.A. (Master of Marine Affairs), and Ph.D.

The B.A. and B.S. in marine affairs focus on coastal and ocean areas and examine environments, resources, and uses from a variety of perspectives. Both degrees qualify for New England Regional Tuition. Topics include coastal and fisheries management, ports and maritime transportation, ocean policy and ocean law.

A marine affairs major establishes a background for careers in the public or private sectors in a wide variety of marine-related fields. Typical areas of employment include positions in government concerned with coastal zone, environmental, or fishery management, and marine transportation. In the private sectors, students have secured positions in environmental consulting firms, marine insurance, public interest nongovernmental organizations, marinas, ports, and companies involved in shipping. The major serves well as an educational background for continued study in law, especially environmental, fishery, coastal zone, admiralty, and ocean law. Students have also entered graduate and professional programs in environmental management, public administration, community planning, marine affairs, and related fields.

Students in the Department of Marine Affairs who participate in the New England Regional Student Program must maintain a 2.80 G.P.A. and take at least one MAF course per year to retain their New England regional tuition status. Failure to meet these objectives will result in suspension of the reduced tuition privilege. Reinstatement may occur if the student meets these requirements for one year after the time of the suspension.

Bachelor of Arts in Marine Affairs. Students who obtain the B.A. in marine affairs must fulfill the Basic Liberal Studies requirements of the College of Arts and Sciences (see “Basic Liberal Studies Requirements”).

Students selecting this field are required to complete at least 30 credits (maximum 45) in marine affairs as follows.

All of the following courses (12 credits): MAF 100, 120, 220, and 410 [capstone]. Five of the following courses (15 credits): MAF 312, 415, 320, 330, 413, 461, 465, 471, 472, 475, 484, and 499. One additional MAF course (three credits) must be taken to complete the required 30 credits in the degree.

In addition, students must also take STA 308 and OCG 123 or 401 (if OCG 123 is taken, it may also be used toward fulfilling the Basic Liberal Studies Natural Sciences requirement).

A total of 120 credits is required for graduation. At least 42 of these credits must be in courses numbered 300 or above.

Bachelor of Science in Marine Affairs. Students selecting this field must complete at least 30 credits in marine affairs with the following required MAF courses: MAF 100, 120, 220, 410 [capstone], 482; and five of the following courses: MAF 312, 320, 330, 413, 415, 461, 465, 471, 472, 475, 484, and 499.

In addition to the above requirements, students must take BIO 101; OCG 123 or 401; MTH 111 or 131; and WRT 333 (3).

Students must also select a total of 18 credits from the following, of which nine must be at the 300 level or above: AFS 102, 201, 202, 210, 211, 311, 312, 315, 321/322, 332, 362, 432, 483; BIO 252, 345, 355, 360, 418, 455/457; CHM 103, 112, 124/126; EEC 105, 110, 205, 310, 345, 356, 410, 432, 435, 440, 441, 456, 460; GEO 100, 103, 210, 240, 277, 320, 370, 450, 483; NRS 223, 361, 406, 409, 410, 423, 424, 440, 461; NRS/GEO 482; NRS 497; OCE 101, 215, 216, 307, 310, 311, 492; OCG 493, 494; PHY 109, 110, 111, 112, 130, 185, 186, 213, 214, 285, 286, 306; STA 308, 409, 412, 413.

A total of 120 credits is required for graduation.

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Marine Biology

See “Biology” earlier in this section.

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Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology Manufacturing

This major, offered by the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, is designed to prepare students for applied careers in the medical laboratory, biomedical, and biotechnology sciences, as well as to prepare students for graduate or professional school. The department also offers the Master of Science (M.S.) degree.

There are two options in the program: Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology Manufacturing. Students in both are required to take these courses: BIO 101 and 102, 121, and 242; CHM 101, 102, 112, 114, 226, 227, and 228 (or 124 and 126 for the Biotechnology option); PHY 111 and 185; MLS 102; MTH 111, 131, or 141. A total of 120 credits is required for graduation.

Medical Laboratory Science Option. During the first three years, emphasis is on general education and on basic courses in the biological, chemical, and quantitative sciences. The courses of the senior year are taught off campus by staff from affiliated hospital schools of medical laboratory science. These schools are accredited by the National Accreditation Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences. The senior year is an 11-month clinical internship that begins in late July. It is taken at one or more of the following clinical agencies: Rhode Island Hospital, Miriam Hospital, Fatima Hospital, and the Rhode Island Blood Center. The clinical program includes lecture and laboratory instruction in clinical chemistry, clinical microbiology, hematology, immunology, immunohematology, and molecular pathology, and prepares the student for national certification examinations and state licensure.

Applicants to this curriculum should have completed 60 credits and taken most of the required courses by the end of the sophomore year. Students are selected for clinical internships by the departmental curriculum committee and by program officials of the hospital schools. Since the number of students is limited, interested students should consult with the program director early in their college career, so they will be familiar with the requirements and application procedures. Flexibility in the curriculum permits students who are not admitted to the program to fulfill requirements for the Bachelor of Science degree in one of several other concentrations in the department. Students with a degree in a health profession, life science, or related field may apply to the clinical internship as a fifth year of study.

Required courses: MLS 405, 406, 407, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 451, and 483; MIC 201 or 211, 333, 432; BCH 311.

Freshman Year First semester: 14-15 credits

CHM 101, 102 (4); BIO 101 or 102 (4); MTH 111 or 131 (3) or 141 (4); and one general education requirement (3).

Second semester: 15 credits

CHM 112, 114 (4); BIO 101 or 102 (4); MLS 102 (1); and two general education requirements (6).

Sophomore YearFirst semester: 14 credits

BIO 121 (4); CHM 227 (3); PHY 111, 185 (4); and general education requirements (3).

Second semester: 18 credits

BIO 242 (3); CHM 226, 228 (5); MIC 201 or 211 (4); general education requirement (3) and free elective /(3).

Junior YearFirst semester: 15 credits

MIC 333 (3); MLS 483 (3); and general education requirements (9).

Second semester: 12 credits

MIC 432 (3); BCH 311 (3); and electives (6).

Senior YearFirst semester: 17 credits

MLS 405 (2), 409 (4), 411 (4), 413 (2), 415 (3), and 451 (2).

Second semester: 15 credits

MLS 406 (2), 410 (4), 412 (4), 414 (2), and 416 (3).

Biotechnology Manufacturing Option. This option is designed to prepare students for professional careers in the biotechnology and biomedical industries in the areas of manufacturing, processing, operations, and technical support. This option is based at the Providence Campus and includes a 12-credit clinical internship at a regional biotechnology or biomedical company. Students should be aware that internships may be limited in number and are awarded on a competitive basis. Students are selected by the departmental curriculum committee and by program officials of affiliated companies. Students interested in this option should consult with the program director early in their college career, so that they will be familiar with the requirements and application procedures. Flexibility in the curriculum permits students who are not admitted to the program to fulfill requirements for the Bachelor of Science degree in one of several other concentrations in the department.

Required courses: MLS 195, 199 (or 12 credits of alternative courses approved by the program director); MIC 190 and 201 or 211; BCH 311, 437, and 453 (or BIO 341). The program is structured to provide intensive professional and clinical training in the first year of the program so the student may enter the professional field while still pursuing the degree. The remainder of the program may be completed on a full-time or reduced-time basis. The electives, in consultation with the program director and appropriate department officials, may be utilized to create personalized specializations and/or minors in management, training and development, information technology, bioengineering, and related areas. The recommended program for the first year is:

Freshman Year First Semester: 16 credits

BIO 101 (4); CHM 101 (3) and 102 (1); MIC 190 (3) and 211 (4); and URI 101 (1).

Second Semester: 17 credits

BIO 102 (4), 242 (3); CHM 124, 126 (4); MLS 102 and 195 (3); WRT 333 (3).

Summer Session: 12 credits

MLS 199 (12)

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Microbiology

This major, offered by the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, meets the guidelines of the American Society for Microbiology. It prepares students for work in a wide variety of scientific areas including molecular genetics, biotechnology, and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as many other areas of biological sciences. A strong background in chemistry is emphasized, providing excellent preparation for graduate or professional school. An option in biotechnology is also available.

Students who develop a strong interest in the clinical aspect of microbiology can easily move to URI's Medical Laboratory Sciences program. This department also offers a Master of Science degree in cell and molecular biology, and a Ph.D. in biological and environmental sciences.

A minimum of 30 credits in microbiology is required, including MIC 333; the capstone experiences 413, 414, 415, 416, and 495; and one course selected from MIC 412, 422, 432, or 576. Students majoring in microbiology may include any course in microbiology; BIO 327, 341, and 437. Students planning to attend graduate school are advised to take MTH 131 and 132, or 141 and 142. In addition, they must take BIO 101, 102, and 352; CHM 101, 102, 112, 114, 226, 227, and 228; BCH 311; PHY 213, 214, 285, and 286 or 111, 112, 185, and 186; and MTH 131 or 141 and one of the following: MTH 111, 132, 142; CSC 201; or STA 308.

Note: CHM 229 and 230, which are offered in summer only, may be substituted for CHM 226.

A total of 120 credits is required for graduation.

Biotechnology Option. Students in the microbiology major may elect the biotechnology option, which offers preparation for further work in research and development, biotechnology operations, quality assurance, and regulatory affairs. This option emphasizes a broad and interdisciplinary overview of the biotechnology industry, and provides students with an academic background in microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, and molecular genetics to prepare them for careers at several levels of industry.

In addition to the courses specified for the major, the following biochemistry and microbiology courses are required: BIO 341, 437; MIC 190, 211, 333, 413, 415, 499 and six additional credits of MIC or BCH course work. MIC 414, 416, and 495 are not required for students pursuing this option.

The required internship for this option (MIC 499) is conducted with the cooperation of local members of the biotechnology industry and may be pursued on a full- or part-time basis. Students should be aware that internships may be limited in number and are awarded on a competitive basis; therefore those interested in the biotechnology option should consult with their advisors early in their college career.

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Nutrition and Dietetics

This major prepares undergraduates for careers in nutrition-related fields. Two options, dietetics and nutrition, are available.

The major requires 22 credits in sciences (four in general chemistry, four in organic chemistry, three in biochemistry, seven in biology, and four in microbiology), 4 credits in introductory professional courses (NFS 110 and 276); and 39-41 credits in the concentration including the following courses: NFS 336, 394, 395, 410, 440, 441, and 458 [capstone]. WRT 104, COM 101, and STA 220 are required and may be used to fulfill general education requirements. There are 6-12 credits of supporting electives and 8-10 credits of free electives. A total of 120 credits is required for graduation.

Students will be admitted to the nutrition and dietetics degree program after completing a minimum of 30 credits, including CHM 103/105, 124/126; BIO 121; NFS 207, 276, 375 or 394; WRT 104; COM 100; and STA 220. Students must have earned a 2.50 average in these classes with no less than a C in any one class to be admitted to the nutrition option, or a 3.00 average in these classes with no less than a C in any one class to be admitted to the dietetics option. Students may repeat NFS courses once. Because of national accreditation requirements, students must complete a separate application form for admission to the dietetics option. All students meeting the admission requirements for the dietetics option will be accepted.

Dietetics Option. This option is required of all students planning to become registered dietitians. URI’s dietetics program is accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), 120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60606, 312.899.0040, ext. 5400. Please see our Web site (http://cels.uri.edu/nfs) for complete program information. In addition to the core courses specified for the major, the following courses are required: NFS 337, 375, 376, 443, 444, 495, and BUS 341. SOC 100 and PSY 113 are also required and may be used to fulfill general education requirements. Students must maintain a 3.00 average in all required courses (NFS courses, science courses, and the remaining degree courses), with no less than a C in any one class, in order to graduate. Students are encouraged to use supporting elective and free elective courses to study disciplines related to the field.

After completing their B.S. requirements, students can qualify for the professional title of Registered Dietitian by completing supervised practice requirements and passing a national exam. The supervised practice requirement is met by completing an ADA-accredited dietetic internship program available to students on a competitive basis nationwide. Admission to internship programs is highly competitive; students are encouraged to review the latest admission information on the American Dietetic Association Web site (http://eatright.org). Internships may be combined with graduate programs in universities leading to an advanced degree. Students who complete the academic and supervised practice requirements are eligible to take the national registration examination.

Nutrition Option. This option is for students who want to study nutrition but do not plan to become registered dietitians. There are three tracks available which provide focused training in specific areas of nutrition:

Nutrition Science—designed for students who want to study the science of nutrition and use this background for advanced study in the field or admission to professional health programs. In addition to the core, students will complete NFS 337, 451, 495, and three additional NFS courses based on their area of interest.

Health Promotion—designed for students who want to work with the public in preventative health education programs. In addition to the core, students will complete NFS 360, 443, 444, 495, and two additional NFS courses based on their area of interest.

Foods-designed for students who want to work in food service management, food safety, or food sustainability. In addition to the core, students will complete NFS 337, 375, 376, 451, and two additional NFS courses based on their area of interest.

Students must maintain a 2.50 average in all required courses (NFS courses, science courses, and the remaining degree courses) in order to graduate. Students are encouraged to use supporting elective and free elective courses to study disciplines related to the field.

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Resource Economics and Commerce

See “Environmental and Natural Resource Economics.”

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Wildlife and Conservation Biology

The major in wildlife and conservation biology, offered through the Department of Natural Resources Science, prepares students for professional careers in the public and private sectors of wildlife biology. In addition, the major provides a solid background for graduate study. Wildlife biologists are professionals concerned with the scientific management of the earth's wildlife species and their habitats. They work in the areas of preservation, conservation, and management of wildlife species. Graduates can become Certified Wildlife Biologists (CWBs) who are recognized by the Wildlife Society, an international professional organization. In addition, wildlife majors meet the educational requirements for state and federal employment in the wildlife profession.

The major requires 17 credits of professional courses, which include natural resource conservation, seminar in natural resources, physical geology, resource economics, introductory soil science, and conservation of populations and ecosystems. As part of the basic science requirements, wildlife majors must complete eight credits in introductory biological sciences; three credits in introductory ecology; four credits in introductory chemistry; four credits in organic chemistry; three credits in introductory calculus; and three credits in introductory statistics. Required concentration courses (22-23 credits) include three credits in the principles of wildlife management; three credits in wildlife field techniques; four credits in field botany and taxonomy; three credits in wetland wildlife or nongame and endangered species management; and nine to ten credits from an approved list of concentration courses that may include, for example, field ornithology, biology of mammals, vertebrate biology, animal behavior, introduction to forest science, wetland wildlife management, wetland ecology, and wildlife biometrics. Supporting electives (26-27 credits) must be selected from the approved list. We encourage students to complete course work so they can become certified wildlife biologists. The list includes the following upper-division course work: three credits in botany; six credits in zoology; three credits in resources policy or administration, environmental law, or land use planning; and six credits in communications. An additional 7-8 credits of supporting electives must be selected from concentration electives, or from other 300- or 400-level natural resources science courses. Up to 15 credits of experiential learning courses may be taken toward satisfying concentration (letter grade courses only) and supporting elective requirements.

NRS 402 and 403, or 423 and 425, or 522 and 524 are the capstone experiences in this major.

Minors in Natural Resources Science

The following minors are University-approved. Students may also design their own minors; see “Minor Fields of Study.”

GIS and Remote Sensing. This minor field of specialization provides students in-depth training in the use of GIS (geographic information system) and remote sensing technology and application of geospatial data processing methods to environmental problem solving. Students who declare a minor in GIS and remote sensing must complete 18 credit hours consisting of the following core courses: NRS 409, 410, 415, 516, and 522. The remaining credits may be taken from NRS 423, 524, 533, or CPL 511. Students minoring in GIS and remote sensing are encouraged to take a capstone course that allows them to apply their analytical skills in a real-world application.

Soil Environmental Science. This minor field of specialization provides students in-depth training in the application of soils information to solve environmental problems and issues. Students fulfilling the requirements of the soil environmental science minor meet the qualifications for basic membership in the Society of Soil Scientists of Southern New England, are eligible for certification as soil scientists under the American Registry of Certified Professional Soil Scientists, and meet the requirements for federal job listings under soil scientists. Students who declare a minor in soil environmental science must complete 18 credits from the following courses: NRS 212, 312, 351, 361, 412, 426, 450, 452, 471, 510, 567, or GEO 515. Students minoring in soil environmental science are encouraged to take a capstone course that allows them to apply their analytical skills in a real-world application.

Wildlife and Conservation Biology. This minor field of specialization provides students in-depth training in the principles of managing wildlife populations and their habitats. Students who declare a minor in wildlife and conservation biology must complete at least 18 credits of NRS courses within the WCB major curriculum, at least 12 of these 18 credits must be at the 200 level or higher, and all courses in the minor must be taken for a letter grade. Students minoring in wildlife and conservation biology are encouraged to take a capstone course that allows them to apply their analytical skills in a real-world application.

A major in this program is also available. See above.


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