Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets

Science And Math  #7

Science Process / Content and Developmental Stages

PreK-12

• Observing (Sensory Motor) The main route to knowledge is through observing, using all the senses. This process is a distinct one by which people come to know about the characteristics of objects and their interactions.
• Seeing / Hearing / Feeling / Tasting / Smelling
• Communicating (Preconceptual) Objects are named and events described by people so that they can tell others about them. Communicating is a fundamental human process that enables one to learn more about a greater range of information than could be learned without this process.
• Silent / Oral / Written / Pictorial · Comparing (Intuitive)
• Comparing is a distinct process by which people systematically examine objects and events in terms of similarities and differences. By comparing the known to something unknown, one gains knowledge about the unknown. All measurements are forms of comparing.
• Sensory comparisons / Relative positive comparisons / Linear comparisons
• Weight comparisons / Capacity comparisons / Quantity comparisons
• Organizing (Concrete Operational) Knowledge of principles and laws is gained only through the systematic compiling, classifying, and ordering of observed and compared data. Bodies of knowledge drawn from long-term organizing processes.
• Data gathering / Sequencing / Grouping / Classifying

3-12

• Relating (Concrete Operational) Relating is a process by which concrete and abstract ideas are woven together to test or explain phenomena. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning, coordinate graphing, the managing of variables, and the comparison of effects of one variable on another contribute to the attainment of the major concepts of science.
• Using space-time relationships / Formulating experimental hypotheses
• Controlling and manipulating variables / Experimenting

6-12

• Inferring (Formal Operational) The process of realizing ideas that are not directly observable is the process of inferring. The process leads to predictive explanations for simple and complex phenomena.
• Synthesizing, analyzing / Generalizing / Recognizing and predicting patterns; stating laws / Formulating explanatory models and theorizing

9-12

• Applying (Formal Operational) Use of knowledge is the applying of knowledge. Inventing, creating, problem-solving, and determining probabilities are ways of using information that lead to gaining further information.
• Using knowledge to solve problems / Inventing (technology)

Adapted from SERIES (University of California)

Submitted by K. Anderson