University of Rhode Island
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Species Common Name Zone Plant Type Height Width Availability
Abies concolor White fir 2 Tree - + - + - - - - + + - - >10' 15-30' 8,10,22,67,74,77,57
Achillea sp. Yarrow 2 Per. - + - + - + - + - - - - 2-6' - 28,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,35,51
Aesculus flava (A. octandra) Yellow Buckeye 2 Tree - + + - - - - - - - - - >10' - 10,67
Aesculus glabra Ohio Buckeye 2 Tree - - - - - - - - - - - - >10' 20-40' 10,67,74
Aesculus x carnea Red Horsechestnut 2 Tree - - - - - - - - - - - - >10' - 10,67,57
Alnus incana ssp. rugosa Speckled Alder 1 Shrub + + + + + + + - + - - - >10' 6-12' 10,74
Alnus serrulata Common Alder 1 Shrub + + + + + + + - + - - - >10' 6-12'  
Amelanchier arborea ! Serviceberry 1 Tree + + + + - + + - + - + - >10' 15-25' 10,67,74,57
Amelanchier canadensis ! Shadbush 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + + + + >10' variable 8,10,22,52,74,77,100,57
Amelanchier laevis ! Allegheny Serviceberry 1 Tree + + + + - + + + + + + - >10' 15-25' 8,10,67,74,77,57
Amelanchier stolonifera ! Running Serviceberry 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + + - - 2-6' variable 22,67
Ammophila breviligulata American Beach Grass 1 Grass + + - + - + + + - - - + 2-6' - 10,12,22,35,67,74,77
Andropogon gerardii Big Bluestem 1 Grass + + - + - + + + - - - - 6-10' 2' 10,12,35,67,74,100
Andropogon glomeratus Bushy Bluestem 2 Grass + + - + + - - - - - - - <2' - 8,10,12,35,67
Andropogon ternarius Split-beard Bluestem 2 Grass - + - + + - + + + - - - 2-6' 2-3' 67
Andropogon virginicus Broomsedge 1 Grass + + - + - + + + + - - - 2-6' 1-2' 12,67
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bearberry 1 Shrub + + + + - + + + + - + - <2' variable 8,10,22,24,41,52,67,74,77,100
Artemisia stelleriana Dusty Miller 1 Per. - + - + - - + + - - - - 2-6' 36" 2,8,10,12,22,24,67,74,77
Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly Milkweed 2 Per. + + - + - - - - - - + - 2-6' 2' 8,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,
Astilbe sp. Astilbe 2 Per. - + + - - - - - - - + - 2-6' - 2,8,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,35,51
Atriplex sp. Salt Bush 1 Shrub + + - + - - + + - - - + <2' 6'  
Baccharis halimifolia Groundsel-bush 1 Shrub + + - + - + + + + + - - >10' 5-12' 10,74
Baptisia australis Blue Wild Indigo 1 Per. - + - + - + + - - - - - 2-6' 3-4' 8,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,100
Baptisia sphaerocarpa Yellow Wild Indigo 2 Per. - + - + - - - - - - - - 2-6' 3-4' 12,22,67,77
Baptisia tinctoria False Indigo 1 Per. + + - + - + + - - - - - 2-6' 2-3' 10,22,67,77
Betula populifolia Gray Birch 2 Tree + + + + + + - - - + - - >10' 10-20' 10,22,67
Calamagrostis x acutiflora 'Karl Foerster' Feather Reed Grass 2 Grass - + - + + - - - - - - - <2' 5-7' 28,10,12,22,24,52,67,74,77
Carex flaccosperma Thin Fruit Sedge 2 Grass + + + + - - - - + + - - <2' 6-12" 10,12,24,67
Carex pensylvanica Pennsylvania Sedge 1 Grass + + + + - + - - + - - - <2' 6-9" 10,12,24,67,74,100
Carex platyphylla Broadleaf Sedge 2 Grass + - + + - + - - + + - - <2' 10" 10,12,22,24,35,67
Carex stricta Tussock Sedge 2 Grass + + + + + - - - + - + - <2' 1.5-2' 10,12,22,24,35,67,74
Carya ovata Shagbark Hickory 2 Tree + + + + - - - - + + - - >10' - 10,74
Ceanothus americanus New Jersey Tea 2 Shrub + + + + - - - - + + - - 2-6' 3-5' 10,100
Ceanothus herbaceus Jersey Tea 2 Shrub - + + + - - - - - + - - 2-6' 3-5'  
Cedrus atlantica var. glauca Blue Atlas Cedar 2 Tree - + + + - - - - + + - - >10' 30-40' 10,22,24,67,74,57
Celtis occidentalis Common Hackberry 2 Tree + + - + + - - - + + - - >10' 40-60' 8,10,67,74,57
Cephalanthus occidentalis Common Buttonbush 1 Shrub + + + - + + - - + - + - 2-6' 3-6' 8,10,52,74,77,100
Cerastium tomentosum Snow in Summer 2 Per. - + - + - - - - - - - - <2' 12" 2,10,12,22,24,67,74,77
Chaenomeles speciosa Flowering Quince 1 Shrub - + - + - + - + + + - - 6-10' 6-10' 2,8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Lawson cypress 2 Tree - + + - + - - - + - - - >10' - 22,67,77
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Nootka Falsecypress 1 Tree - + + - + - + + + + - - >10' - 8,10,22,24,67,74,77
Chamaecyparis obtusa Hinoki Falsecypress 2 Tree - + + + + + - - + - - - >10' 10-20' 8,10,22,24,67,74,77,51,81
Chamaecyparis pisifera Japanese Falsecypress 1 Tree - + + + + + + + + + - - >10' 10-20' 8,10,22,24,67,77,57
Chamaecyparis thyoides Atlantic White Cedar 2 Tree + + + + + + + - + - - - >10' 10-20' 8,10,74,77
Chrysopsis mariana Maryland Goldenaster 2 Per. + + - + - + + + - - - - 2-6' - 12,67
Clethra acuminata Mountain Pepperbush 2 Shrub - + + - - - - - + - - - >10' - 22,67
Clethra alnifolia Sweet Pepperbush 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + + + - 6-10' 4-6' 8,10,22,24,41,52,67,74,77,100,51,81
Clethra barbinervis Japanese Clethra 2 Tree - - + - - - - - + - - - >10' - 2,10,22,52,67,74,77
Comptonia peregrina Sweet Fern 2 Shrub + + + + + + - + + - + - 2-6' 4-8'+ 10,52,74,77,100,57
Coreopsis verticillata Threadleaf Coreopsis 2 Per. - + - + - - - - - - - - <2' 2-3'+ 2,8,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,35,51
Cornus alterniflora ! Pagoda Dogwood 1 Tree + + + + + + + - + + - - >10' 20-25' 8,10,67,74,77,57
Cornus amomum ! Silky Dogwood 1 Shrub + + + + + + + - + - + - 6-10' 6-10' 8,10,22,52,74,100,57
Cornus florida* ! Flowering Dogwood* 2 Tree + - + - - - - - + - - - >10' 15-20' 2,10,22,24,41,67,74,51,81
Cornus racemosa ! Gray Dogwood 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + - + - 6-10' variable 8,10,22,52,67,74,100,57
Cornus sericea ! Redosier Dogwood 1 Shrub + + + + + + + - - - + - 6-10' 7-9' 8,10,22,52,67,74,100,57
Cotinus coggygria Smoketree or Smokebush 2 Shrub - - - - - - - - - - - - >10' 10-15' 8,10,22,24,41,52,67,74,77,57
Cotinus obovatus American Smoketree 2 Tree - + - + - + - - + + - - >10' - 10,22,67,77
Crataegus crus-galli Cockspur Hawthorn 1 Tree + + - + - + + - + - - - >10' 20-30' 8,10,67,74,57
Crataegus nitida Glossy Hawthorn 1 Tree - + - + - + + - - - - - >10' 20-30' 67
Crataegus phaenopyrum Washington Hawthorn 1 Tree - + - + - + + - + - - - >10' 20-30' 10,67,74
Crataegus viridis Green Hawthorn 1 Tree - + - + - + + + + + - - >10' 20-30' 8,10,67
Cryptomeria japonica Japanese Cryptomeria 1 Tree - + + + + - - - + + - - >10' 20-30' 10,24,67,74,77,57
Cupressocyparis leylandii Leyland Cypress 1 Tree - + - - + - + - + + - - >10' 12-15' 2,10,22,24,41,67,74,77,57
Cupressus macrocarpa Monterey Cypress 2 Tree - + - + - + + - - - - - >10' - 67
Dasiphora fruticosa Shrubby Cinquefoil 2 Shrub + + - + - - - - - - - - 2-6' 2-4'  
Deschampsia flexuosa Wavy Hairgrass 1 Grass + + + + + + - - + - - - 2-6' - 10,12,22,67
Dirca palustris Leatherwood 2 Shrub - - + - + - - - - - - - 2-6' 3-6' 74
Distichlis spicata Saltgrass 1 Grass + + - + + + + + + - - + <2' - 10,67,74
Echinacea purpurea Purple Coneflower 2 Per. - + - + - - - - - - - - 2-6' 2' 2,8,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,35,51
Echinops ritro Globe Thistle 2 Per. - + + + - - - - - - - - 2-6' 2' 2,10,12,22,24,67,74,77
Elymus hystrix Eastern Bottlebrush Grass 2 Grass - - + + - + - - - - - - 2-6' 1-1.5' 10,12,67
Elymus virginicus Virginia Wildrye 1 Grass + - + - + + + + + - - - 2-6' - 10,12,67,100
Eragrostis spectabilis Purple Lovegrass 1 Grass + + - + - - + + + - - - 2-6' 1-2' 10,12,22,35,67,100
Erica carnea Spring Heath 2 Per. - + - - - - - + + - - - <2' 20" 2,22,24,67,74
Erica darleyensis Winter Heath 2 Per. - + - - - - - + + - - - <2' 2' 22,24,67,74
Eryngium maritinum Sea Holly 1 Per. - + - + - - - + - - - - <2' 1.5-2' 2,10,12,22,67,74,77
Eubotrys racemosa Swamp Doghobble 2 Shrub + + + + + + - - + - - - 2-6' 4-6'  
Eupatoriadelphus dubius Coastal Plain Joe Pye Weed 2 Per. + + - - + - - - - - + - 2-6' 2-3' 12,67
Eupatoriadelphus maculatus Spotted Trumpetweed 2 Per. + + - - + - - - - - + - 2-6' - 10,67
Eupatorium perfoliatum Boneset 2 Per. + + - - + - - - - - + - 2-6' 3-4' 10,12,67,74,77,100
Eupatorium purpureum Joe Pye Weed 1 Per. + + - + + + + + + - + - 2-6' 3' 2,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,100
Festuca ovina Sheep Fescue 1 Grass - + - + - - + + - - - - <2' 8" 8,10,12,22,24,41,67,74,77
Gaultheria procumbens Wintergreen 2 Shrub + + + + - - - - + - - - <2' variable 10,22,24,41,52,74,77,100
Gaylussacia baccata Huckleberry 2 Shrub + + + + - - - - + - - - 2-6' 2-3' 10
Gaylussacia dumosa Dwarf Huckleberry 2 Shrub - - + + - - - - + - - - <2' -  
Gaylussacia frondosa Blue Huckleberry 2 Shrub - - + + - - - - + - - - 2-6' 3-4'  
Genista tinctoria Woadwaxen 2 Shrub - + - + - - - - + + - - 2-6' 2-3' 8,52,57
Hamamelis japonica Japanese Witchhazel 2 Shrub - + + + - + + - - - - - >10' 10-15' 22,67,74
Hamamelis mollis Chinese Witchhazel 2 Shrub - + + + - + + - + - - - >10' 10-20' 2,10,22,52,67,74,57
Hamamelis vernalis Vernal Witchhazel 1 Shrub - + + + + + + - - + + - 6-10' 6-10' 2,8,10,22,52,74,77,57
Hamamelis virginiana Common Witchhazel 1 Shrub + + + + - + + - + + - - >10' 15-20' 2,8,10,22,52,67,74,77,100,57
Hamamelis x intermedia Hybrid Witchhazel 2 Shrub - + - - - - - - + - - - >10' 15-20' 8,10,22,52,74,77,57
Hibiscus moscheutos Rose Mallow 2 Per. + + - - + + + + + + + - 6-10' 3-5' 2,8,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,35
Hierochloe odorata Sweetgrass 1 Grass + + - - + + + + + - - + 2-6' - 67,100
Hordeum jubatum Foxtail Barley 1 Grass + + - + - + + + - - - - <2' - 67
Hudsonia ericoides Pine Barren Goldenheather 1 Per. + + - + + - + + - - - - <2' 3-4' 67
Hudsonia tomentosa Sand Goldenheather 1 Per. + + - + + - + + - - - + <2' 3-4' 67
Hydrangea anomala var. petiolaris Climbing Hydrangea 2 Vine - + + + - - + + + + - - >10' - 2,8,10,12,22,24,41,52,67,74,77,51
Hydrangea arborescens Smooth Hydrangea 2 Shrub - + + + - - - - + + - - 2-6' 5-10' 8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,57
Hydrangea macrophylla 'Nikko Blue' Hydrangea 1 Shrub - + + - - - + - + + - - 6-10' 6' 2,8,10,22,41,52,67,74,77,51,88
Hydrangea paniculata Panicle Hydrangea 2 Shrub - + + + - - - - + - - - >10' 10-15' 8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,57
Hydrangea quercifolia Oakleaf Hydrangea 2 Shrub - + + + - - - - + - - - 6-10' 4-8' 2,8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,51,81
Hylotelephium spectabile Showy Stonecrop 2 Per. - + - + - - - - - - - - <2' 1.5-2' 2,8,67,74
Hypericum sp. St.John's wort 2 Per. - + + + - - - - - + - - 2-6' 1-4' 2,8,12,22,52,67,74,77
Ilex glabra Inkberry Holly 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + + + - 6-10' 8-10' 2,8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,51,81
Ilex opaca American Holly 2 Tree + + + + + - - - + - + - >10' 15-30' 2,10,22,24,67,74,77,57
Ilex verticillata ! Winterberry Holly 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + + + - 6-10' 6-10' 2,8,10,22,24,41,52,67,77,100,57
Iris versicolor Blue Flag 2 Per. + + + - + - - - - - + - 2-6' 1-2' 2,10,12,22,24,51,67,74,77,100
Itea virginica Virginia Sweetspire 2 Shrub - + + + + - - - + + - - 2-6' 5-8' 2,8,10,22,52,67,74,77,57
Iva frutescens var. oraria High Tide Bush - also Jesuit's Bark 1 Shrub + + - - + - + + - - - + 6-10' - 10,74
Juglans cinerea Butternut 2 Tree - - - - - - - - - - - - >10' 30-50' 10,67
Juncus effusus Soft Rush 1 Grass + + - + + + - - + - - - 2-6' 1-2' 10,12,22,24,35,67,74,77
Juncus gerardii Black Rush 1 Grass + + - + + + + + + - - + <2' 6" 22,67,74
Juniperus chinensis Chinese Juniper 1 Shrub - + - + + + + + + + - - varies - 2,8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,57
Juniperus communis Common Juniper 1 Shrub + + - + - + + + + + - - 6-10' 8-12' 8,10,22,24,52,67,74
Juniperus conferta Shore Juniper 1 Shrub - + - + - + + + - - - - <2' 10-15' 10,22,24,52,67,74,77,57
Juniperus horizontalis Creeping Juniper 1 Shrub + + - - - + + - + - - - <2' 6-8' 8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,57
Juniperus procumbens Japanese Garden Juniper 1 Shrub - + - + - + - - - + - - <2' 10-15' 8,10,22,24,41,52,67,74,77,57
Juniperus virginiana ! Eastern Red Cedar 1 Tree + + - + - + + + + + - - >10' 8-20' 2,8,10,24,67,74,77,57
Kalmia latifolia Mountain Laurel 2 Shrub + - + + - - - - + - + - >10' 5-12' 2,10,22,24,52,56,67,74,77,100,57
Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus Beach Pea 1 Per. + + - + - + + + - - - + <2' 1' 10,67,77
Lavandula angustifolia Lavender 2 Per. - + - + - - - - - - - - 2-6' 1-2' 2,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,35,51
Ledum groenlandicum Labrador Tea 2 Shrub + + + - + - - - + - + - 2-6' 2-4' 67
Leiophyllum buxifolium Box Sandmyrtle 2 Shrub - + + - - - - - + - - - 2-6' up to 5' 67,77
Liatris scariosa var. novae- angliae New England Blazing Star 1 Per. + + - + - + + - + - - - 2-6' 2-3' 10,12,22,24,67
Limonium carolinianum Carolina Sea Lavender 1 Per. + + - + + + + + + + - - 2-6' 3' 12,22,35,67,74
Lindera benzoin ! Spicebush 2 Shrub + + + - + - - - + - + - >10' - 2,8,10,52,67,74,77,100
Lonicera sempervirens Trumpet Honeysuckle 2 Vine + - + - - - - - + - - - >10' - 8,10,12,22,24,67,77,100
Lupinus perennis Sundial Lupine 2 Per. + + - + - - - - + - - - 2-6' 1-2' 10,22,67,74,77,35
Lyonia ligustrina Maleberry 2 Shrub + + + - + - - - + - - - >10' -  
Lyonia mariana Stagger-bush 2 Shrub + + - + + + + + + - - - 2-6' -  
Magnolia virginiana Sweetbay Magnolia 2 Tree - + + - + + + - + - - - >10' 10-20' 8,10,67,74,77,57
Morella (Myrica) gale Sweet Gale 1 Shrub + + + + + + + - + - - - 2-6' 2-4' 10,74,100
Morella (Myrica) pensylvanica ! Bayberry 1 Shrub + + + + - + + + + - + + >10' 5-12' 2,8,10,22,52,67,74,77,57
Muhlenbergia capillaris Purple Hairgrass 1 Grass + + - + + + + + + - - - 2-6' 2' 10,12,67,74,77
Nipponanthemum nipponicum Montauk Daisy 1 Per. - + - + - + + + - - - - 2-6' 3-4' 2,12,22,24,67,74,77,35,51
Oenothera biennis Evening Primrose 2 Per. + + - + - - - - - - - - 2-6' 1-2' 2,8,22,24,67,74,77
Oxydendrum arboreum Sourwood 2 Tree - + + + - + - - + + - - >10' 6-10' 10,24,67,74,77,57
Panicum amarum Coastal Switchgrass, also "Bitter Panic Grass" 1 Grass + + - + + + + + - - - - 6-10' - 10,12,22,51,67,74
Panicum virgatum Switchgrass 1 Grass + + - + - + + - + - + + 6-10' 2-3' 28,10,12,22,24,51,52,67,74,77,100
Parthenocissus quinquefolia ! Virginia Creeper 1 Vine + + + + - + + + - + - + >10' - 8,10,12,22,67,74,77,100
Photinia floribunda Purple Chokeberry 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + - - - >10' 5' 67,100
Photinia melanocarpa Black Chokeberry 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + - + - 2-6' 10' 52,67,74,100
Photinia pyrifolia Red Chokeberry 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + - + - >10' 5' 52,67,100
Physocarpus opulifolius Common Ninebark 1 Shrub + + - + + + + - + + - - 6-10' 6-8' 8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,81
Picea abies Norway Spruce 2 Tree - - - + - - - - + - - - >10' - 2,8,10,22,67,74,77,57
Picea glauca White Spruce 2 Tree - - + - - - - - + + - - >10' 10-20' 2,8,10,24,67,74,77,51,81
Picea mariana Black Spruce 2 Tree - + + + + + - - - - - - >10' 15-20' 10,67
Picea pungens var. glauca Colorado Blue Spruce 1 Tree - + - + - - + + - - - - >10' 10-20' 2,8,10,22,24,67,74,77,57
Pieris floribunda Mountain Fetterbush 2 Shrub - + + - - - - - + - - - 6-10' 6' 2,10,22,24,52,67,77
Pinus banksiana Jack Pine 1 Tree - + - - - + - - + - - - >10' 25-30' 67
Pinus contorta Shore Pine 1 Tree - + - - + + + - - - - - >10' - 22,67
Pinus densiflora Japanese Red Pine 2 Tree - + - + - - - - + - - - >10' 40-60' 2,10,67
Pinus flexilis Limber Pine 2 Tree - + + + - + - + - - - - >10' 15-25' 8,10,67,74,77,57
Pinus heldreichii var. leucodermis Bosnian Pine 1 Tree - + - + + - + - - + - - >10' 15-20' 10,67,74,77
Pinus parviflora var. glauca Japanese White Pine 2 Tree - + - - - - + + - + - - >10' 25-50' 10,22,67,74,77,57
Pinus rigida Pitch Pine 2 Tree + + - + - - - - + - - - >10' 30-50' 10,22,67,74
Populus deltoides Eastern Cottonwood 2 Tree + + - + - - - + + + - - >10' 50-75' 8,10,67
Populus tremuloides Quaking Aspen 2 Tree + + - - - - - - - + - - >10' 20-30' 8,10,67,74
Prunus maritima Beach Plum 1 Shrub + + - + - - + + - - - - 6-10' 6' + 8,10,22,52,67,74,77
Prunus serotina ! Black Cherry 2 Tree + + - + - + + - + - - - >10' 20-30' 10,22,67,74
Prunus virginiana ! Chokecherry 2 Tree + + - + - + + - + - - - >10' 18-25' 8,10,67,74
Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium Rabbit tobacco 2 Per. + + - + - + + - - - - + <2' - 67
Ptelea trifoliata Common Hoptree 2 Tree - + + - - - - - - - - - >10' 15-20'  
Quercus alba White Oak 1 Tree + + + + + + - + + - - - >10' 50-90' 8,10,22,67,74
Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak 2 Tree + - - - + - - - + - - - >10' 50-60' 8,10,67,74,57
Quercus ilicifolia Bear Oak 1 Shrub + + + + - + + + + - - - >10' 12-15' 10,67
Quercus imbricaria Shingle Oak 2 Tree - + - + - - - - + - - - >10' 50-75' 10,67
Quercus laurifolia Laurel Oak 2 Tree - - - - - - - - - - - - >10' - 67
Quercus palustris Pin Oak 2 Tree + + - - + - - - + - - - >10' 25-40' 8,10,67,74,51,81
Quercus phellos Willow Oak 2 Tree - + - - + - - - + - - - >10' 30-40' 67
Quercus prinoides Dwarf Chinkapin Oak 1 Shrub - + - + - + + + + - - - >10' 12-15'  
Quercus prinus Chestnut Oak 1 Tree + + + + - + + + + - - - >10' 60-70' 67
Quercus stellata Post Oak 1 Tree + + - + - + + + + - - - >10' 40-50' 67
Quercus velutina Black Oak 1 Tree + + + + + + + + + - - - >10' 60-75' 10,22,67,74
Rhododendron viscosum Swamp Azalea 2 Shrub + - + + + + - - + - + - 6-10' 3-8' 8,10,24,52,67,74,77
Rhus aromatica Fragrant Sumac 2 Shrub - + + + - - - + + - - - 2-6' 6-10' 8,10,52,74
Rhus copallinum Winged Sumac 1 Shrub - + - + + + + - + + + + >10' 20-30' 8,10,74
Rhus glabra Smooth Sumac 1 Shrub + + - + - + + + + + - - >10' 10-15' 8,10,52,74
Rhus typhina Staghorn Sumac 1 Shrub + + - + - + + + + + - - >10' 15-25' 10,52,74,77,100
Robinia hispida Bristly Locust 1 Shrub - + - + - + + + - + - - 6-10' 6-10'  
Rosa carolina Carolina Rose 1 Shrub + + - + + + + + + + - + 2-6' 5-6' 10,22,67
Rosa palustris Swamp Rose 1 Shrub + + - - + + + + + + - - 2-6' - 10,22,74,100
Rosa virginiana Virginia Rose 1 Shrub + + - + - + + + + + - + 6-10' - 10,22,52,67,74
Rudbeckia fulgida 'Goldstrum' Orange Coneflower 2 Per. - + - + - - - - - - + - 2-6' 1.5-2' 2,8,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,35
Saccharum brevibarbe Short Beard Plumegrass 2 Grass - + - - + - - - + + - - 2-6' - 67
Salix discolor Pussy Willow 1 Shrub + + + - + - - - + + - - >10' 20' 2,8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,100
Sambucus canadensis ! Common Elderberry 1 Shrub + + + - + - - - - + - + >10' 5-12' 10,67,74,77
Sassafras albidum Sassafras 1 Tree + + + + + + + + + - - - >10' 25-40' 10,67,74,77
Schizachyrium scoparium Little Bluestem 1 Grass + + + + - + + - + - - - 2-6' 12-18" 8,10,12,22,67,77,100
Schizophragma hydrangeoides Japanese Hydrangea Vine 2 Vine - + + + - + - - - - - - >10' 6-9' 8,10,22,52,67,74,77
Schoenoplectus americanus Chair Maker's Rush 1 Grass + + - - + + + + + - - + 6-10' - 10,67
Schoenoplectus maritimus Cosmopolitan Bulrush 1 Grass + + - - + + + + + + - - 2-6' - 67
Schoenoplectus robustus Sturdy Bulrush 1 Grass + + - - + + + + + + - + 2-6' - 10,67
Sciadopitys verticillata Japanese Umbrella Pine 2 Tree - + + + - + + - + - - - >10' 15-20' 2,10,22,24,67,74,77,57
Sedum ternatum Woodland Stonecrop 2 Per. - + + + + - - - - - - - <2' 12" 10,12,22,24,77,100
Senna hebecarpa American Senna 1 Per. + + - - + + + - - - - - 6-10' 4-6' 67
Senna marilandica Maryland Senna 2 Per. - + - + - - - - - - - - 2-6' 3-6' 67
Shepherdia canadensis Russet Buffaloberry 1 Shrub - + - + - - - + - + - - 6-10' 6-8' 8
Solidago sempervirens Seaside Goldenrod 1 Per. + + - + + - + + - - - + 2-6' - 10,12,22,67,74,77
Sorghastrum nutans Indiangrass 1 Grass + + - + + + + + + - - - 2-6' - 10,12,22,35,67,74,100
Spartina alterniflora Smooth Cordgrass 1 Grass + + - - + + + + - - - - 2-6' variable 10,67,74
Spartina patens Salt Marsh Hay 1 Grass + + - - + + + + - - - + <2' - 10,67,74
Spiraea latifolia Meadowsweet 1 Shrub + + - + + + + - + - - - 2-6' 6-8' 10,22,67,74,100
Spiraea tomentosa Steeplebush 1 Shrub + + - + + + + - + - - - 2-6' 4-6' 10,22,67,74,77,100
Sporobolus cryptandrus Sand Dropseed 1 Grass + + - + - + + - - - - - 2-6' - 12,67
Stewartia pseudocamellia Japanese Stewartia 2 Tree - + + - - - - - + - - - >10' 10-25' 2,10,22,41,67,74,77,57
Styphnolobium japonicum Japanese Pagoda Tree 2 Tree - + - + - - - - - - - - >10' 40-50' 10,74
Symphyotrichum dumosum Nesam var. dumosum Rice Button Aster 1 Per. + + - - - - - - - - - - 2-6' 2-3' 10,67,74
Symphyotrichum novae-angliae New England Aster 2 Per. + + - + - + - - + - + - 2-6' 4' 2,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,100,35
Symphyotrichum tenuifolius Perennial Saltmarsh Aster 1 Per. + + - + + + + + - - - + <2' - 67
Syringa reticulata Japanese Tree Lilac 2 Tree - + - - - - + - + + - - >10' 15-25' 2,8,10,22,67,74,77,57
Syringa vulgaris Common Lilac 2 Shrub - + - + + - + + + + - - >10' 6-12' 2,8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,81
Taxus baccata 'Repandens' Dwarf English Yew 2 Shrub - - + - - - + + - - - - 2-6' 12-15' 10,24,41,52,67,74,77,81
Taxus x media Anglo-Jap Yew 2 Shrub - - + + - - + + - - - - >10' varies 8,10,24,67,74,81
Teucrium canadense Germander 1 Per. + + - - + + + - + - - + 2-6' - 2,12,67,77
Thymus sp. Thyme 2 Per. - + - + - - - - - - - - <2' 12" 2,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,35,51
Typha angustifolia ** Narrow-leaved Cattail 1 Grass + + - - + + + + + + - + 2-6' - 2,10,12,24,67,74,77,100
Ulmus rubra Slippery Elm 2 Tree + + + + + - - - - - - - >10' 30-40' 67
Vaccinium angustifolium ! Lowbush Blueberry 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + - - - <2' 24" 2,10,22,24,52,67,74,100,57
Vaccinium corymbosum ! Highbush Blueberry 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + - + - >10' 8-12' 2,8,10,22,24,52,67,74,77,100,57
Vaccinium macrocarpon American Cranberry 2 Shrub + + - - + - - - + - - - <2' variable 10,22,24,67,74,100
Vaccinium pallidum Blue Ridge Blueberry 2 Shrub + + + + + + - - + - - - <2' 2' 67
Vernonia noveboracensis New York Ironweed 2 Per. + + - + - - - - + - + - 2-6' 2-3' 12,22,67,74,100
Veronica sp. Speedwell 2 Per. - + - - - - - - - - - - varies varies 2,8,10,12,22,24,67,74,77,35,51
Viburnum dentatum ! Arrowwood 1 Shrub + + + + + + + + + + + - >10' 6-15' 2,8,10,22,24,41,52,67,74,77,51,81,100
Viburnum recognitum Southern Arrowwood 1 Shrub + + + + - + + + - - - - 6-10' 10' 2,10,67,81
Wisteria frutescens American Wisteria 2 Vine - + - + - + - - - - - - >10' - 22,67,74
Zenobia pulverulenta Dusty Zenobia 2 Shrub - + + - + - - - + - - - 2-6' 2-6'  

* Has been subject anthracnose infections in recent years. Some botanists feel that existing stands may have some natural resistance to the disease.
** Can become invasive in disturbed areas.
! Indicates plant species with significant habitat food value for migratory songbirds (Smith et al., 2007).

Last Updated: March 3, 2010

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