PG-1: EF-F
CUE MOVEMENTS WITH SIDE VOWELS

The vowel sounds /ah/ as in "Shah" and /oh/ as in "go" are cued at the side. The /oh/ is always cued as side/forward in American Speech; the /ah/ is cued as side/forward except when it is the first vowel in two of the diphthongs (see PG-1: EF-G): /ie/ and /ow. Here are some examples to illustrate:
"Ma" [5-s/f]     "my" [5-s,5-t] NO forward motion
"Pa" [1-s/f]     "pie" [1-s,5-t]
"spa" [3-s,1-s/f]"spy" [3-s,1-s,5-t]
You shouldn't bring your cueing hand back to its original side position when the sound following the /ah/ is cued at the mouth or the throat. Here are two examples to illustrate:
"father" [5-s/f, then go directly to 2-m]
"Bahia" [4-s/f, then go directly to 5-m,5-s/f]
    (pronounced /bah-EE-ah/)
But in most instances when /ah/ is followed by a consonant in the same syllable, you should bring the cue hand back the same distance you broght it forward (about an inch). See examples below:
"far" [5-s/f, then back to original side position for 3-s]
"farm" [5-s/f, then back for 3-s,5-s]
"star" [3-s,5-s/f, then back for 3-s]
Although /oh/ in American English speech is usually considered to be a diphthong (phoneticians don't all agree!), we cue /oh/ as a vowel in order to give a clear visual distinction for the diphthong /ow/ as in "cow." In any event, the /oh/ sound is always cued side/forward in American speech. As with the /ah/, you don't bring the cueing hand back to its starting position if the following sound is cued at the mouth, chin, or throat. Here are some examples to illustrate:
"okeh" [5-s/f,2-c,5-t]
"pony" [1-s/f,4-t]
"rotor" [3-s/f,5-m]
"gotee" [7-s/f,5-m]
"O'Keefe" [5-s/f,2-m,5-s]
But in most instances when /oh/ is followed by a consonant in the same syllable (or the next syllable is also cued at the side) you must move your cueing hand back the same distance you moved it forward for /oh/. Examples will illustrate:
"go" 7-s/f] but "goat" [7-s/f, then back for 5-s]
"most" 5-s/f, then back again for 3-s,5-s]
"photo" [5-s/f, then back for 5-s/f]
"soda" [3-s/f,then back for 1-s/down]
"Rhoda" 3-s/f, then back for 1-s/d]
"code" [2-s/f, back for 1-s]
"cold" [2-s/f,6-s,1-s] (bring your hand back for /l/,/d/)
Both the stressed /uh/ and the unstressed vowel /u/ are cued side/down. You don't raise the hand to its initial side position when the sound following /uh/ or /u/ is cued at the mouth, chin, or throat. To illustrate:
"upper" [5-s/d,1-m]   "appall" [5-s/d,1-c,6-s]
"appeal" [5-s/d,1-m,6-s] "a pit" [5-s/d, 1-t,5-s]
You do, however, bring the cueing hand back up to its original side position if the sound following the /uh/ or /u/ is cued at the side:
"suppose" [3-s/d, then back up for 1-s/f, then back for 
              2-s]
"love" 6-s/d, then back up for 2-s]
"ago" [5-s/d, then back up for 7-s/f]
"hundred" [3-s/d, back up for 4-s, 1-s,3-s/d, then back
              up for 1-s] (pronounced /huhn-drud/)
Here are some words and short phrases which will provide practice for the side vowel movements. The first few can be checked for accuracy:

"owe" "own" "Jonah" "Mona" "polka" "polo" "poach" "Argo" "Argus" "Arlo" "Arnold" "Armand" "Sha-na-na" "Nova" "coma" "Sonar" "Shogun" "Carla" "Charles" "Charlotte" "alone" "Omar" "Olson" "abode" "abrupt" "abutment" "adjustment" "alumnus" "oppose" "pagoda" "aroma" "open" "oven" "oaken" "prototype" "quota" "quotient" "ugh!" "ultra" "couple" "utmost" "marvelous" "marshall" "Marlo" "Brahma" "focal" "avocado" "Marco Polo" "Coast Guard" "part of the whole" "a farm house" "dark hole of Calcutta" "old oaken bucket" "fudge nut bar" "those are open" "open up" "Rub-a-dub-dub" "almond bar"


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SOLUTIONS FOR SELECTED WORD AND PHRASES

/oh/ = [5-s/f]

/ohn/ = [5-s/f, back for 4-s]

/Joh-nu/ = [7-s/f, back for 4-s/d]

/Moh-nu/ = [5-s/f, back for 4-s/d]

/pohl-ku/ = [1-s/f, back for 6-s,2-s/d]

/poh-loh/ = [1-s/f, back for 6-s/f]

/pohch/ = [1-s/f, back for 8-s]

/Ahr-goh/ = [5-s/f, back for 3-s,7-s/f]

/Chahrlz/ = [8-s/f, back for 3-s,6-s,2-s]

/shahr-lut/ = [6-s/f, back for 3-s,6-s/d, up for 5-s]

/kwoh-shunt/ = [2-s,6-s/f, back for 6-s/d, up for 4-s,5-s]

/ah-mund/ = [5-s/f, back for 5-s/d, up for 4-s,1-s, 4-s/f, back for 3-s]

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