PG-2: EF-C

Handshape 2 for the consonants /k/(as in "key"), /v/(as om "VIC"), /z/(as in "zoo"), and the voiced /th/ (as in "though") is made with the index and middle fingers extended parallel to the viewer while the thumb is hidden behind the palm and the "ring" and little finger are also folded against the palm out of sight. Handshape 3 for the consonants /h/(as in "he", /s/(as in "see"), and r/(as in "raw" or "hear") is made with the thumb and index finger lightly touching behand the palm while the middle, "ring," and little fingers are extended parallel to the viewer. Visual confusion between 2 and 3 is not likely, but you may have digital dexterity problems when moving quickly from one to the other. Remember, the middle finger is common to both handshapes, and keeping it stationary during the shift may take some practice. Here is a suggestion which may help:

The usual confusion problems involving 2 and 3 lie elsewhere; we'll get to those in a moment. But, first, establish the skill of moving freely and quickly from one to the other with these simple-to-cue words. Monitor yourself in a mirror or work with a partner if at all possible.

"hair"(3-c,3-s] "rare"[3-c,3-s] "there"[2-c,3-s]
"Zayre"[2-c,3-s] "care"[2-c,3-s] "wreck"[3-c,2-s]
"this"[2-t,3-s] ""horse"[3-c,3-s,3-s]
"course"[2-c,3-s,3-s] "source"[3-c,3-s,3-s]
"Zeke"[2-m,2-s] "Zeus"[2-c,3-s]
"risk"[3-t,3-s,2-s] ""risky"[3-t,3-s,2-t]
"very" [2-c,3-t] "Kerry"[2-c,3-t] "carry" [2-t,3-t]
"husk"[3-s/d,3-s,2-s] "Rusk"[3-s/d,3-s,2-s]
"thus"[2-s/d,3-s] "husky"[3-s/d,3-s,2-t]
"seek"[3-m,2-s] "Hee-haw"[3-m,3-c] "see-saw"[3-m,3-c]
"cover"[2-s/d,2-m] "hover"[3-s/d,2-m] "Hoover" [3-c,2-m]
"hooker"[3-t,2-m] "rook"[3-t,2-s] "cook"[2-t,2-s]

One very common cueing error influenced by English spelling involves words which contain two "r" letters on the printed page -- but not in speech! We are talking about such words as "hurry," "furry," "surrey," "curry," "Murray" etc. Cue them as /hur-i/ [3-m,5-t], /sur-i/ [3-m,5-t] etc. Don't put in the extra /r/ cue. BUT -- and many people do this -- if you cue-and-say these words as /huh-ri/ [3-s/d,3-t], /Muh-ri/ [5-s/d,3-t] etc. then you should cue the /r/ at the beginning of the second syllable.

And for those in the upper Midwest who say /hur-ee/[3-m,3-m] you will want to cue the second syllable at the mouth -- not at the throat. Confusing, isn't it? That's why there are no cue positions listed for the following practice words. If you say "sore" as /sawr/ then you cue 3-c,3-s. If you say "sore" as /sohr/ then cue 3-s/f,3-s. Or if you regularly say "here" as /heer/ then cue 3-m,3-s, but if you say /hir/ cue 3-t,3-s. Just be consistent with yourself.

"core" "roar" "course" "of course" "source" "hoarse" "score" "recourse" "resource" "divorce" "Morse" "pores" "door" "yours" "hear" "seer" "Sears" "career" "veneer" "Zaire" "dear"

There is a special practice lesson for /s/-/z/ plural forms of words elsewhere in this manual if you need it. Briefly, common words which normally end in the sounds /p/,/t/,/k/,/f/ and the voiceless /xh/ are said with an /s/ sound [handshape 3].

"cooks" "rakes" "bikes" "pups" "wraps" "drapes" "thoughts" "prints""punts" "whiffs" "cliffs" "coughs" "myths" "baths" "births"

Plural forms of common words which end in all other sounds EXCEPT /s/,/z/,/sh/./zh,/ch/ or /j/ are said with a /z/ sound [handshape 2].

"cabz" "robez" "ribz" "roadz" "braidz" "bidz" "bagz" "bugz" "pigz" "dogz" "cavez" "fivez" "grovez" "groovez" "lathez" "scythez" "clothez" "billz" "ballz" "hillz" "barz" "covez" "fourz" "playz" "fliez" "gluez" "Shahz" "lawz" "plowz" "clamz" "planz" "swingz" "thingz"

And please /pleez/ don't let English spelling trip you up when cueing-and-saying such words as "waltz" (that's /s/ -- not /z/!), "Schultz," "pizza," "schmaltz" etc.

Perhaps the following contrasting pairs of words will help you to hear when to cue /s/ and when to cue /z/:

   source - sores         Cora's - chorus
   noose - news           lose - loose
   deuce - dues           hers - hearse
   fours - force          ones - once
   bums - bumps           ells - else
   offends - offence      boys - Boyce
   joys - Joyce           graze - grace
   plays - place          May's - mace
   rays -race             lies - lice
   falls - false          malls - malts
   rise - rice            clams - clamps
   dams - damps           rams - ramps
   brings - brinks        prize - price
   peas - peace           fleas - fleece
   lands - lance          loves - luffs
   plans - plants         Dan's - dance
   man's - manse          trance - trans
   gross -grows           decrees - decrease
   knees - niece          vies - vice
   draws - dross          jaws - joss
   face - phase           fuzz - fuss

For carry-over practice, try these phrases and short sentences.

"Davey Crockett" "corn on the cob" "ride in the car" "Merry Christmas" "Happy Hanukah" "This is very cozy." "Is he crazy?" "Sarah's very vague." "The very thought of you" "Suzie sews for her mother." "Zorro rides again." "He took a vacation in Zanzibar." "Could you use this case?" "Supper's ready!" "No cavities this time." "Take care of your sister." "Have a cracker." "He carved a cake of soap." "Carl's in school." "Karen isn't here." "That's it!" "There's a crow." "Can you carry that?" "Say that over again." "This is ridiculous!" "The Chex are in that box."

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