PG-2: EF-F

Handshape 4 for the consonants /b/(as in "bee"), /n/(as in "new"), and /wh/(as in "Whee!") is made with the four fingers extended parallel to the viewer while the thumb is folded against the palm. Handshape 8 for the consonants /y/(as in "you"), /ng/(as in "young"), and /ch/(as in "chew") is made with the index and middle fingers spread as for the letter "V" with other fingers and thumb folded against the palm out of sight. There is very little possibility of any visual confusion between 4 and 8. Most of the problems are caused by misleading information from memory of English spelling -- and in some instances from fuzzy notions of pronunciation.

Some cuers, when they want to cue-and-say such words as "long" or "sing," think of the letters they use to spell such words ("n" + "g") rather than the /ng/ sound which is cued with handshape 8. To counteract this, let's practice with some /n/ - /ng/ contrasts:

  "sin"[3-t,4-s]    "sing"[3-t,8-s]
  "sun"[3-s/d,4-s]  "sung"[3-s/d,8-s]
  "win"             "wing"
  "ton"             "tongue"
  "Hun"             "hung"
  "fan"             "fang"
  "Juan"/wawn/      "Wong"
  "kin"             "king"
  "ban"             "bang"
  "mountain"        "mounting"
  "thin"            "thing"
  "been"            "Bing"
  "lawn"            "long"
  "ran"             "rang"
  "run"             "rung"
  "Ron"             "wrong"
  "bun"             "bung"
  "Lynn"            "Ling"
  "batten"          "batting"
  "raisin"          "raising"
  "luncheon"        "lunching"
  "gone"            "gong"
  "pin"             "ping"
  "pawn"            "pong"
  "stun"            "stung"
  "prawn"           "prong"
  *"Lincoln"         "linking"

*Did you get caught on the /ng/ in "Lincoln"[6-t,8-s,2-s/d,4-s]?

It should be noted that English spelling is of no help at all to the deaf child who needs to know the correct pronunciation of /ng/ words. There isn't even any phonologic rule which works for such words. Perhaps the following lists will help:

  1. None of these /ng/ words should be said (or cued) with a /g/ sound added to the /ng/:
    "ping" "pong" "sing" "song" "sang" "sung" "bring" "spring" "singing" "singer" "wringer" "hanger" "young" "long" "longing" "swing" "swinging" "springer" "lung" "among" "king" "Klinger" "dung" "strong" "hung" "strung" "string" "Ming" "Bing" "stringer" "sprang" "sprung"
  2. But these words ARE said (and cued) with an added /g/ [handshape 7]sound:
    "longer"[6-c,8-s,7-m] ""longest" "younger" "youngest" "dungaree" "hunger" "finger" "strangle" "single" "mingle" "jingle" "Bingo" "linger" "anger" "angry" "angle" "bungle" "jungle" "Ringo" "mango' "mangle" "bungalow" "hungry" "stronger" "strongest" "Kris Kringle" "jangle" "dangle" "fungus"
  3. And these /ng/ words are said (and cued) with an added /k/ sound:
    "ink"[5-t,8-s,2-s] "drink" "drank" "drunk" "spunk" "trunk" "spank" "mink" "brink" "kink" "dinky" "donkey" "funk" "funky" "hunk" "junk" "crank" "Hank" "plank" "sink" "sank" "sunk" "zinc" "hankie" "honk""rink" "wink" "think" "shrink" "chink" "link" "twinkle" "stink" "canker" "thank" "bunk" "dunk" "monk"
  4. Still another group of words spelled with the letters "n" + "g" + "e" are pronounced and cued with /n/ + /j/:
    "range"[3-c,5-t,4-s,7-s] "hinge" "orange"/awrinj/[5-c,3-t,4-s,7-s] "strange" "manger" "stranger" "plunge" "sponge" "lunge" "danger" "tangerine"[5-t,4-s,7-m,5-m,4-s]

Some people choose to say "runnin" or "walkin" rather than "running" or "walking"; they should cue as they talk. But to say /ruhnin/ and cue [3-s/d,4-t,8-s]will only confuse the hearing-impaired child. Don't do it!

These handshapes 4 and 8 occur in many final consonant clusters which should be practiced for quick, accurate execution. Work on these until they come easily to your fingers:

"inch"[5-t,4-s,8-s] "punch" "bunch" "lunch" "pinch" "ranch" "hunch" "munch" "Grinch" "cinch" "bench" "staunch" "clinch" "branch" "brunch" "crunch" "stench" "trench" "winch" "wrench"

Although the /wh/ sound has disappeared from the speech of many Americans and is sometimes unstable in the speech of those who stil use it (most of us substitute the /w/ sound indiscriminately), the hearing-impaired child is entitled to know what the sound is and when it can be used. Practice these /w/ - /wh/ contrasting words even if you seldom make such contrasts in your own speech. Your deaf child may bve exposed to s teacher or clinician who does used /wh/.

"we"[6-m] "whee!"[4-m]   "woe"  "whoa!"[6-s/f]
"Winnie"  "whinney"      "wine" "whine"
"wail"    "whale"        "weather" "whether"
"wile"    "while"        "wet"  "whet"
"wit"     "whit"         "Y"    "why"
"way"     "whey"         "witch" "which"
"wan"     "Juan"         "were" "whir"
"wight"   "white"        "wig"  "whig"
"WAC"     "whack"        "wear" "where"
"wing"    "whing"        "world""whirled"

But PLEASE don't make the mistake of cueing these words with a /wh/ because we always say them with /h/: "who"[3-c] "whole[3-s/f,6-s] "whom"[3-c,5-s] "whose"[3-c,2-s] "whore"[3-c,3-s] or [3-s/f,3-s]

Here are some practice phrases and sentences for carry-over practice:

"Eating her curds and whey"
"Younger Than Springtime"
"He is recording whale songs."
"whole wheat bread for lunch"
"What will you do when winter comes?"
"The lion was lying in the jungle."
"I'm hungry for Bing cherries."
"Why do you belong to this branch of the YMCA?"
"When I was younger I was a singer."
"I'm longing for the longer days of Spring."
"Just who do you think you are...or is it 'whom'?"

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