PG-3: EF-B

Most of the time people talk with each other not in syllables or even words -- but in "sense groups" or "thought groups." Why not say "sentences" and be done with it? Because often what we actually say are not grammatical sentences in the strict sense. For example:

        He:   "See you Saturday?"
        She: "What time?"
        He:   "About eight?"
        She: "Fine with me.!"
In these oral sense groups we run words together without stopping; and when a word or syllable ends with a consonant and the next word or syllable begins with a vowel sound, we carry over the final consonant. That is liaison. True, on this printed page spaces are put between words (but not syllables) for visual convenience. Pauses are only put between spoken words for special emphasis or to meet syntactical demands or to avoid confusion ("an ice man" rather than "a nice man").

We have already experienced hundreds of examples of liaison within words of more than one syllable:

 NO LIAISON                    LIAISON
"bell"/bel/[4-c,6-s]        "belly"/be+li/[4-c,6-t] 
"jell" /jel/ [7-c,6-s]      "JELL-O"/je+loh][7-c,6-s/f]
"Bob"/bahb/[4-s/f,4-s]      "Bobby"/bah+bi/[4-s/f,4-t]
"wilt"/wilt/[6-t,6-s,5-s]   "wilted"/wil+tid/              
"swim"/swim/                "swimming"/swi+ming/
"big"                       "biggest"/bi+gist/
"fame"                      "famous"/fay+mus/
"film"                      "filming"/fil+ming
Notice that in each case the final consonant in the one syllable word on the left became the beginning consonant of the second syllable. Actually this makes cueing of the word faster and much more efficient. Try it -- you'll see! Now back to groups of words.

The sentence "It is easy." is said and cued as quite different phoneme syllables: /i-ti-zee-zi/[5-t,5-t,2-m,2-t]. The sentence "That's easy!" is said and cued /That-see-zi!/[2-t,5-s,3-m,2-t]. If you can ignore how sentences are printed and concentrate on how you actually say them, this practice will be much more fruitful. At first we'll give yo broad hints as to where the liaison (carry-over) is with printed dashes (-):

"put-on" "take-it" "take-it-off" "time-out" "make-apple"
"isn't-always" "made-it-up" "an-awful-lot""he's-an-eagle"
"said-it-often" "can-open-er"[2-t,4-s/f,1-s/d,4-m]
"Dale-is-absent" "that's-all-over" "gone-over" "eight-hour"
"five-hours-ago" "get-even" "act your-age" "when-all-is"
"things-are" "I'll-even-arange-it!"
Now try to build these sense groups into sentences, using liaison where directed. Once you've masteredthese, try to cue and say some of them from memory without referring to the printed page at all.

1. "Where will-it" "Where will-it-all" "Where will-it-all-end?"
2. "Take-only one" "Take-only one-asperin-at bedtime."
3. "Am-I" "Am-I catching" "Am-I catching-a cold?"
4. "Don't-ask" "Don't-ask for-another" "Don't-ask for-another piece-of cake."
5. "You did-it" "You did-it-all" "You did-it-all-alone!"
6. "When-in the course-of human-events..."
7. "We, the people-of the United States-of-America..."
8. "Tell-Uncle Bob-I'm-excited-about-it."
9. "You ate-it-all-up like-a big boy!"
10. "That's-all there-is -- there-isn't-any more."
11. "What-are-all your toys doing-in the kitchen!"
12. "Please-eat your-egg."
13. "New York-is called the 'Big-Apple'."

For these sentences decide where liaison is indicated before you cue and say them. It's a far better practice to get the sentence "off the page" and into your speaking memory before you begin to cue-and-say. Whatever you do, avoid looking at the page while cueing and saying. You can click on each sentence to check your liaisons if you wish.

1. "I have ice cream if you'd like it."
2."When-are you going to pick-up your room?"
3. "If you're even in this neighborhood, look us up."
4. "Jump in and get wet all over!"
5. "Dinner will be ready in an hour."
6. "In just a minute I'll look for it in your closet."
7. "I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America...."
8. "Put on a clean undershirt after your bath."
9. "Have you heard Ernest singing a song?"
10. "His name is Arnold Adams."
11. "What kind of an education is that?"
12. "Did you have an accident with your apple sauce?"

Advance to PG-3: EF-C
Return to Table of Contents

1. "I have-ice cream-if you'd like-it."

2. "When-are you going to pick-up your room?"

3. "If you're-ever-in-our neighborhood, look-us-up."

4. "Jump-in-and get wet-all-over!"

5. "Dinner will be ready-in-an-hour."

6. "In just-a minute-I'll look for-it-in your closet."

7. "I pledge-allegiance to the Flag-of the United States-of-America...."

8. "Put-on-a clean-undershirt-after your bath."

9. "Have you heard-Ernest singing-a song?"

10. "His name-is-Arnold-Adams."

11. "What kind-of-an-education-is that?"

12. "Did you have-an-accident with your-apple sauce?"