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Scenes from Faculty Senate

University Manual

Chapter 3 - The Colleges, Schools and Divisions of the University

3.10.10 The University of Rhode Island comprises nine colleges, the Graduate School, the Graduate School of Oceanography, and other ancillary research and extension services.

3.20.10 The Academic Deans. The dean of each college, school and division shall be responsible for effective administration of his/ her administrative unit; promote its academic efficiency by every approved means; give attention to the programs of study, their purposes and content, the effectiveness of instruction, the counseling of students, the supervision of the faculty and the development of an effective research environment; recommend to the Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs persons for appointment, dismissal or other change in status; and prepare a budget of estimated receipts and expenditures for his/her administrative unit for the ensuing year and, after it has been approved, administer it.

3.20.11 The dean of each college may have the consultation and advice of appropriate faculty committees.

3.20.12 The dean of the college in which the Director of the Water Resources Center serves as a faculty member will have the administrative responsibility of the Center.

3.20.13 The Director of the Rhode Island Water Resources Center has the responsibility for technical and financial operations of the Center, which is the state institute for research and training in all phases of water resources; and is chairperson of the Water Resources Coordinating Committee.

3.21.10 The Department Chairperson shall have administrative responsibility for the program of the department under the dean of his/her college; cooperate with department members in planning and developing policies and programs; evaluate the instructional, research and administrative processes of the department and make recommendations to the dean; evaluate periodically the department members and report the evaluations as required; recommend appointments, reappointments, promotions and dismissals of department members; insure that adequate supervision, advice and training are provided to new department members and others who might profit therefrom; generally promote the welfare of the department and the University by every appropriate means; and carry out such other duties as are set forth elsewhere in the UNIVERSITY MANUAL.

3.21.11 The College of Arts and Sciences has as School of Communication #07-08--10 and the following departments:

  • Art and Art History (#05-06--23)
  • Chemistry
  • Communication Studies
  • Computer Science and Statistics
  • Economics
  • English
  • History
  • Journalism
  • Library and Information Studies
  • Mathematics
  • Military Science and Leadership (#05-06--23)
  • Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures
  • Music
  • Philosophy
  • Physics
  • Political Science
  • Psychology
  • Sociology and Anthropology
  • Theatre
  • Writing and Rhetoric (#09-10--30)

3.21.12 The College of Business Administration

3.21.13 The College of Engineering has the following departments:

  • Chemical Engineering
  • Civil and Environmental Engineering
  • Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering (#05-06--28)
  • Mechanical, Industrial, and Systems Engineering (#08-09--24)
  • Ocean Engineering

3.21.14 The College of Human Science and Services has the following departments:

  • Communicative Disorders
  • Human Development and Family Studies
  • Kinesiology (#03-04--11; #03-04--13)
  • Physical Therapy (#05-06--16)
  • School of Education
  • Textiles, Fashion Merchandising, and Design

3.21.15 The College of Nursing

3.21.16 The College of Pharmacy has the following departments:

  • Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (#03-04--18)
  • Pharmacy Practice

3.21.17 The College of the Environment and Life Sciences has the following departments:

  • Biological Sciences (#04-05--10)
  • Cell and Molecular Biology
  • Landscape Architecture (#07-08--11)
  • Environmental and Natural Resources Economics
  • Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science
  • Geosciences
  • Marine Affairs
  • Natural Resources Science
  • Nutrition and Food Sciences
  • Plant Sciences

3.21.20 The University College. All undergraduate students who have not successfully completed at least 24 credits, except those licensed, registered-nurse students enrolled to obtain the BS degree in Nursing, shall be enrolled in this college. Students who have indicated a preference for a particular professional college before the completion of 24 credits shall be considered to be enrolled in the college as well as in the University College if professional licensing or financial support requirements make this desirable.

3.21.21 The Dean of University College and Special Academic Programs shall have administrative responsibility for the University College (including New Student Programs and the Academic Advising program for Athletes), for nonmatriculating undergraduate students on the Kingston campus (see 8.19.11) and for the following special academic programs: the Office of Internships and Experiential Education, the Learning Assistance Center, the National Student Exchange and the Office of International Education.

3.21.22 In carrying out these responsibilities, the Dean shall have appropriate administrative assistance including an Associate Dean and an advising staff composed of faculty members from the various URI colleges who shall serve part-time as special area advisers and an advising staff composed of faculty members from the various URI colleges who shall serve part-time as special area advisers. Nine hours a week shall normally be considered a part-time advising load. Advisers shall be assigned to this activity by the dean of their permanent college after approval by the Dean of the University College and Special Academic Programs. No faculty member shall be required to act as an adviser either as part of his or her regular load or as an overload without his or her consent. Appropriate adjustments in the individual's University responsibilities shall be made to permit effective performance of the advising function. The dean of each undergraduate college in consultation with department chairperson shall provide the University College with sufficient advisers to cover all areas of undergraduate concentration offered by that college.

3.21.23 The advising staff as described in 3.21.22 shall comprise the voting faculty of the University College.

3.30.10 The Graduate School. The University offers programs leading to Master of Arts or Science degrees, professional master's degrees and the Doctor of Philosophy degree, in cooperation with the several colleges, graduate professional schools and the Feinstein College of Continuing Education.

3.30.11 The Dean of the Graduate School shall have primary responsibility for administering the policies and procedures of graduate study.

3.30.12 The Dean shall be ex officio chairperson and a member of the Graduate Faculty, the Graduate Council. S/he shall be the executive officer of both the Graduate Faculty and Graduate Council.

3.30.13 The Dean shall transmit to the Faculty Senate actions of the Graduate Faculty requiring its approval; administer and enforce regulations pertaining to the conduct of graduate work and the granting of graduate degrees and certify to the Graduate Council the names of students who have satisfied requirements for degrees; administer the executive office of the Graduate School, maintain appropriate records, prepare the annual budget, make regular reports to the President and to the Graduate Faculty on the condition of the Graduate School; and perform other related duties necessary for the effective functioning of the Graduate School.

3.30.14 Early in each academic year s/he shall prepare and distribute to all faculty a list of the faculty members who qualify for membership on the Graduate Faculty; and shall coordinate and administer University graduate fellowship and scholarship programs.

3.30.15 In carrying out these responsibilities the Dean shall be assisted by the following (3.30.16):

3.30.16 The Associate Deans of the Graduate School shall perform the duties of the Dean of the Graduate School during the absence of the Dean and such other duties as are delegated by the Dean.

3.31.10 The Graduate School of Oceanography. Instruction in this school shall be limited to graduate study. The research program shall include both basic and applied studies in the several disciplines of oceanography and marine biology.

3.31.11 The Dean of the Graduate School of Oceanography shall be responsible for the administration of the school.

3.40.10 The Alan Shawn Feinstein College of Continuing Education shall provide to persons in Providence and other communities in the state not only individual courses of instruction but also academic programs leading to certificates, baccalaureate degrees and graduate degrees. The Alan Shawn Feinstein College of Continuing Education shall be responsible for developing credit and/or non-credit offerings and schedules that shall address the special needs of students who are unable to undertake full-time university study. It shall conduct professional institutes, seminars, conferences, short courses and in-service courses related to the general continuing education program; and carry on a program of counseling and psychological testing for individuals and organizations.

3.40.11 The Summer Session shall present programs in the colleges and departments of the University to permit students to accelerate or enrich their studies. It shall also offer an expanded program of graduate work, workshops, conferences, travel courses, and clinics of special interest to professional workers, and courses appealing to avocational and intellectual interests. #12-13--21

3.40.12 The Vice Provost for Urban Programs, assisted by the Associate Dean of the Alan Shawn Feinstein College of Continuing Education, shall be responsible for the administration of the college and of Summer Session. The Vice Provost shall appoint temporary lecturers for credit courses with the approval of the department chairpersons and the deans of colleges concerned.

3.40.13 The Vice Provost for Urban Programs shall be the administrative authority for offerings of any approved course in the college and summer session, including all courses for credit such as seminars, special problems and workshops and including conferences, institutes, short courses and in-service courses off-campus. Professors are not authorized to make individual arrangements for special courses without the approval of the academic deans of colleges concerned and of the Vice Provost for Urban Programs. The Office of Enrollment Services shall not accept nor record grades for students in any course not previously authorized by the dean and the Vice Provost.

3.40.14 The Vice Provost for Urban Programs, in cooperation with departments shall determine lists of the college's offerings. The Vice Provost for Urban Programs shall, in consultation with the appropriate department chairperson and college dean, determine time and place of offerings and establish minimum enrollments for the Alan Shawn Feinstein College of Continuing Education classes. Immediately upon cancellation of under-enrolled classes, the Vice Provost for Urban Programs shall notify departments of such cancellation.

3.40.15 The Vice Provost for Urban Programs shares with the Interdisciplinary Studies Faculty academic responsibility for the BIS program. The Vice Provost shall review all proposals approved by the BIS Curriculum Committee for (1) the creation, modification, or abolition of BIS concentrations; (2) the modification of the general education component of the BIS program; and (3) the creation, modification, or abolition of BIS courses. The Vice Provost shall consult with affected departments before forwarding curricular proposals to the Faculty Senate Curricular Affairs Committee. The Vice Provost shall consult with the appropriate college deans concerning proposals which have staffing or course scheduling implications.

3.40.16 The Vice Provost for Urban Programs shall appoint university faculty members as instructors for special BIS courses with the approval of the appropriate department chairperson and college dean. The Vice Provost shall appoint temporary lecturers for special BIS courses upon recommendation of the BIS Special Faculty Committee. The Vice Provost may reappoint temporary lecturers for the BIS Pro-Seminar.

3.40.17 The Winter J-Term Session shall present programs in the colleges and departments of the University to permit students to accelerate or enrich their studies. It shall also offer an expanded program of graduate work, workshops, conferences and travel courses. #12-13--21

3.40.18 Winter J-Term Session courses shall be scheduled in accordance with procedures for fall and spring semesters. #12-13--21

3.42.10 The University Libraries shall provide a maximum of effective service in advancing the academic interests in instruction, research and extension for all of the University's faculty and students.

3.42.11 The Dean of University Libraries shall be responsible for the effective administration of his/her administrative unit; promote its efficiency by every approved means; give attention to the effectiveness of instruction and the supervision of faculty; recommend to the Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs persons for appointment, dismissal or other changes in status; and prepare a budget of estimated receipts and expenditures for his/her academic unit for the ensuing year, and, after it has been approved, administer it.

3.43.10 The Office of Information Technology Services shall provide leadership and a coherent framework for information services and technology strategies and standards. Its mission is to provide systems and services for the effective, efficient, and timely use of information in support of teaching, research, and service. The Office is responsible for institutional research and the preparation of statistical reports for the Office of Higher Education, the U. S. Department of Education and other agencies to which the University must provide reports. Units within the Office of Information Technology Services include: Information and Instructional Technology Services (IITS); Management Information Services (MIS); Networking and Telecommunications Services (NTS); and Technical and Operational Services (TOPS).

3.43.11 The Vice Provost for Information Technology Services shall be responsible for the effective administration of his/her administrative units within the Office of Information Technology Services; promote their efficiency by every approved means; and prepare budgets of estimated receipts and expenditures for his/her academic units for the ensuing year, and, after they have been approved, administer them.

3.45.10 The Office of Planning Services shall support individuals and offices responsible for planning at all levels within the University with consulting services, facilitation, and in conjunction with Institutional Research shall provide necessary data.

3.50.10 The University of Rhode Island Research Foundation is a non-profit corporation at the University of Rhode Island to administer the development of scientific research, technology, the commercialization of intellectual property and such other work as necessary to develop, promote and enhance scientific research and technology at the University of Rhode Island and within the state of Rhode Island.

3.50.11 The URI Research Foundation shall aid and assist the University of Rhode Island in the establishment, development and fostering of scientific research and technology, which will, further the learning opportunities, programs, services and enterprises of the University and of the state of Rhode Island. Shall promote, encourage and foster the education and training services, scientific investigations, technology development, technology commercialization at the University.

3.50.12 The Research Foundation shall pursue, obtain and protect intellectual property rights (including patents, trademarks, tangible materials and copyrights) in and to all valuable intellectual property flowing from or belonging to the University of Rhode Island and to administer such intellectual property in conformity with applicable state and federal laws.

3.50.20 The Board of Directors shall manage the business and affairs of the Research Foundation. The membership shall comprise thirteen (13) persons and shall include the following ex officio members: the President of the University of Rhode Island; the Vice President for Research and Economic Development; the Vice President for Administration; and the Chairperson of the Board of Governors for Higher Education or his/her designee. The remaining nine (9) members of the board of directors shall be appointed to their initial terms by the President of the University of Rhode Island on a staggered basis with approximately one third of the terms expiring each year for the first three years.

3.50.21 After the initial appointments members shall be elected for three-year terms at the annual meeting of the board. Vacancies other than from expiration of term may be filled by the remaining members of the board at a special meeting called for that purpose. An outgoing director shall not be permitted to vote on his or her successor. A director may be re-elected for up to two (2) additional three-year terms. Each director, other than the ex officio directors, shall hold office for the term for which elected and until a successor is elected and qualified.

3.51.10 The Director of the Cooperative Extension Service shall have administrative responsibility for the programs of extension work in agriculture and home economics; study the needs and demands for extension services in the several communities of the state; organize educational programs; and direct their operation in conformity with such federal regulations as may apply.

3.52.10 The Agricultural Experiment Station is a cooperative program between the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, a division of the US Department of Agriculture and the University of Rhode Island. The Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station shall have administrative responsibility for the programs of agricultural and environmental research under this program.

3.53.10 The Laboratories for Scientific Criminal Investigation shall provide instruction, research and service in the field of scientific criminal investigation.

3.57.10 The Instructional Development Program shall assist faculty and teaching assistants who want to increase their teaching effectiveness. It shall also attempt to promote an institutional environment in which effective teaching is actively encouraged, expected, discussed and systematically rewarded.

3.58.10 The Rhode Island Water Resources Center shall be the state center for research and training in all phases of water resources.

3.59.10 The Feinstein Center for a Hunger Free America is an educational center committed to developing solutions to the problem of hunger in Rhode Island and nationwide. The Center shall seek to promote education, research, and outreach on the causes and consequences of hunger and the study of policies and programs aimed at alleviating hunger. The Director shall work with an advisory board of faculty and staff from throughout the University. This Board shall advise the Center on implementing its mission. The Center shall be administered by the College of Arts and Sciences. #02-03--24

3.60.10 The Sea Grant College Program shall administer a variety of marine research, education and public service activities funded under the Sea Grant College and Program Act of 1966.

3.61.10 The Program in Gerontology shall study the social-psychological aspects of aging to develop programs designed to serve the aged and to implement educational programs in social gerontology.

3.62.10 The Center for Personal Financial Education shall provide outreach, education, and conduct research to improve the economic well-being of families. Programming and research shall focus on topics including: personal financial management, credit use and debt management, home buying, personal investing, and retirement planning. The Center shall support the long-range institutional goal of the University for improving the economic well-being of families in Rhode Island. The Center’s mission shall be implemented through three focus areas: product development, outreach, and research and program evaluation. The Center shall be administered by the College of Human Science and Services. #04-05--12

3.63.10 The Marine Advisory Service shall provide field specialists and information to the state's marine community.

3.65.10 The Coastal Resources Center shall render service to the state, particularly the Coastal Resources Council, on marine and coastal problems.

3.68.10 The Biotechnology Center shall be comprised of a group of faculty members and academic departments within and outside the College of the Environment and Life Sciences with common research interests in the area of biotechnology. It shall be administered through the College of the Environment and Life Sciences by an interdisciplinary steering committee.

3.69.10 The Charles T. Schmidt, Jr. Labor Research Center offers graduate and undergraduate programs in labor relations, labor studies, and human resources. It also conducts research and outreach on the workplace and workforce. It is committed to a tri-partite philosophy, working on equal terms with employers, unions, and neutral parties.

3.72.10 The URI Transportation Center , an interdisciplinary unit, shall work to enhance the University's capacity to undertake transportation research, expand programs to help educate transportation professionals and the transportation workforce of tomorrow, and improve understanding of transportation through outreach and technology transfer programs.

3.72.11 Internal evaluations of the center shall be provided by the URI Transportation Center Executive Board. The Board shall include senior administrative officers of the University, two college deans, and representatives of major Rhode Island public and private sector organizations having an interest in transportation.

3.72.12 The center is an externally funded entity managed by an Executive Director. To accomplish its mission, the Center shall support cross-disciplinary research, seminars, and educational initiatives in the URI curriculum that focus on transportation and related fields.

3.75.10 The Center for Molecular Toxicology , based in the College of Pharmacy, shall foster a state-wide research and training network in toxicology and related disciplines, support mentored research by faculty and students at URI and other institutions of higher education, and provide access to the RI-INBRE (Rhode Island IDeA Network of Biomedical Research Excellence) grant-funded biomedical equipment core facility.

3.75.11 The center shall be led by a director who shall report to the Dean of the College of Pharmacy. Programmatic oversight shall be provided by an External Advisory Committee, which shall include scientists and business consultants, including the Director of the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation. The External Advisory Committee shall meet biannually and provide annual program updates in a meeting with URI administrators, including the President, the Vice President for Research and Economic Development, the Provost, and the Dean of the College of Pharmacy.

3.75.12 The Center shall submit, to NCRR-NIH (National Center for Research Resources, a component of the National Institutes of Health), an annual Progress Report concerning RI-INBRE grant-supported activities. These activities shall also be evaluated periodically by an external committee convened through an organization evaluating programs and providing advice on program enhancement, such as the Research Competitiveness Service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

3.81.10 The Center for Pacific Basin Capital Markets Research shall create, maintain, and distribute capital markets data bases for eleven Pacific-Basin countries; promote academic research and teaching programs for a better understanding of the region's capital markets; and provide an international forum for global communities of business, government, and academia to exchange research ideas and findings and relevant information that affect the region. The Center shall be administered outside the departmental structure under the leadership of a director who shall report to the Dean of the College of Business Administration.

3.83.10 The Center for Human Services is a college-based evaluation and research center housed in the College of Human Science and Services. It is supported by grants and contracts and is comprised of faculty members from all departments in the College. Through research, evaluation, education, and program development, the Center shall promote activities that provide sound information for use by practitioners and policy makers in public service areas including public schools and other educational institutions. The Center shall be administered by a director who shall report to the Dean of the College of Human Science and Services.

3.84.10 The Coastal Institute is an initiative for bringing natural and social sciences to bear on critical public policy issues related to the coastal and marine environment. It shall provide mechanisms for a community of researchers and practitioners to examine issues and to work together on coastal problems of common interest through research and extension/outreach activities with implications throughout the natural and social sciences, both basic and applied, and engineering. Fellows, comprising internal faculty members and external partners, shall work as a multidisciplinary organization to address complex and multi-faceted problems. The Institute shall be administered by a director who shall report to the Vice Provost for Marine Programs.

3.85.10 The Feinstein Center for Service Learning shall promote the integration of service with academic study in order to enhance student learning and deepen civic responsibility.

3.86.10 The John Hazen White Sr. Center for Ethics and Public Service offers ethics and public service programs for elected and appointed officials, public managers, graduate and undergraduate students and citizen groups. The Center is a critical component of a vision for learning which assumes public universities must play a leadership role in creating a culture of ethical and civic responsibility among students and the larger community as part of their educational mission. The Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences shall administer the Center. #00-01--30

3.87.10 The Center for Student Leadership Development provides opportunities for students to become inclusive, effective leaders in current and future career, community, and family roles. The Center offers for-credit classes through academic departments and co-curricular positions, workshops, conferences, and programs. The Center also provides leadership and group development consulting services to student groups. The Director of the Memorial Union and Student Activities shall administer the Center for Student Leadership Development. #00-01--30

3.90.10 The Center for Vector-Borne Diseases shall bestow an appropriate designation on an active interdisciplinary group of faculty while keeping within the existing University structure; create an atmosphere that encourages free exchange of ideas and effort among the varied disciplines represented by interested faculty; and enhance opportunities for attracting and developing research funding and other resources.

3.90.11 The Center shall create a research focus necessary for developing and soliciting research funds; identify potential state, national, and worldwide resources in the specific field of study; provide a University wide identity for faculty and research programs involved in vector-borne disease research under several departmental designations (i.e. Plant Sciences; Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Molecular Genetics; Biological Sciences); create an attractive program of research for students, post-doctoral fellows and visiting scientists from the United States and abroad; and attract public attention to the University and its expertise in the field of vector-borne diseases, especially Lyme disease.

3.90.12 The Center shall function as an externally funded research entity.

3.91.10  The Institute for Immunology and Informatics (I'Cubed) applies immunomics (informatics, genomics and immunology) to improve human and animal health by developing better vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics, especially focusing on diseases prevalent in the developing world. I'Cubed is administered by the College of the Environment and Life Sciences, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. #11-12--1

3.95.10 The Faculty Institute on Writing shall initiate and support policies and activities that place good writing at the center of a high quality education. The Institute shall hold workshops on writing and the teaching of writing for faculty from across the curriculum; aid faculty and departments with the design of writing intensive courses; conduct research on writing across the curriculum; seek funds for the development of writing across the curriculum; and hold conventions, contests, and other events for students and administrators in order to promote writing as a means of learning, of self-expression, of communication, and of engaged productivity.

3.95.11 The Institute shall be administered by a director who shall report to the College of Arts and Sciences. The Faculty Senate Curricular Affairs Committee shall advise, monitor and evaluate the Institute's efforts. The Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences (or a designee) shall participate in the Institute's evaluation. The Curricular Affairs Committee shall report to the Faculty Senate on the Institute's activities. #01-02--22

3.96.10 The Center for the Humanities shall include the disciplines of history, English, languages, philosophy, religious studies, art, art history, music, theatre; the interdisciplinary programs African and Afro-American studies, women's studies and comparative literature; as well as all other disciplines or departments that employ humanistic contents or humanistic approaches in research and teaching, especially anthropology, communication studies, economics, journalism, political science, psychology and sociology.

3.96.11 The purpose of the center shall be to foster intellectual exchange and independent inquiry, analysis and interpretation of the humanities in research and teaching.

3.96.12 The center shall accomplish its mission through the annual selection of two to four humanities fellows who shall be supported in their research, in their conducting of seminars with undergraduate and graduate students, and in their preparation of new courses for the undergraduate curriculum. The center shall also sponsor a series of lectures to be given by outside visiting scholars chosen as experts in a theme of the year.

3.96.13 The center shall be administered by an executive committee and a director (see section 5.39.10).

3.96.20 Evaluation. In addition to the regular review as mandated in section 8.90.30, the center shall be evaluated in five year intervals by a committee appointed by the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. The first evaluation shall be conducted in 1998. The evaluation committee shall assess the quality of the center's programs as well as the appropriateness of the funding process and of the budget. On the basis of its findings, the committee shall make a recommendation as to whether the center merits continuation. The committee shall include a faculty member from the College of Arts and Sciences Curriculum Committee, one humanities faculty member at large, and one non-humanities member recognized for his or her humanistic interests. The committee shall select its own chairperson. No less than three months after its commissioning the committee shall submit a final report to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Faculty Senate. This report may include whatever recommendations the committee deems appropriate.

3.97.10 The Metcalf Institute for Marine and Environmental Reporting shall promote clear and accurate reporting; strengthen understanding and working relationships with members of the news media; and provide opportunities for beginning journalists to learn, on both a formal and an informal level, how to improve their skills in marine and environmental reporting. #09-10--32

3.98.10 The Child Development Centers of the University of Rhode Island shall offer high quality, developmentally appropriate early childhood education programs for children ages three to six years. Accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), the Centers' full day preschool and kindergarten programs are to provide high quality programs for pre-primary children, to serve as a high quality teacher training facility, to support research in the field of early childhood education, and to serve the community as a model of best practice in early care and education through outreach and advocacy. The original Child Development Center is located on the Kingston campus of the University. The Dr. Pat Feinstein Child Development Center is located at the Feinstein Providence Campus. #09-10--16

3.99.10 The Center for School Improvement and Educational Policy (CSIEP) shall be dedicated to the continuous improvement of educational and community settings. The Center shall apply educational evaluation and research strategies to practical problems identified by the community and policy makers; work in partnership with schools, other universities and foundations, and federal, state and community agencies across the nation; as well as support and assist schools and communities in their efforts to provide equitable, highly effective, and developmentally appropriate education and community-based services to all children, youth, and families. Of particular concern to the center shall be those who are placed at risk by economic or social disadvantages. #09-10--16