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Transtheoretical Model
Colleen Redding, Ph.D.

"CPRC - A research organization dedicated to helping people change their behavior for living longer, healthier lives"

Colleen A. Redding, Ph.D.
Research Professor



Curriculum Vitae


Peipert JF, Redding CA, Blume J, Allsworth J, Ianucillo K, Lozowski F, Mayer K, Montagno A, Morokoff PJ, & Rossi JS. (in press). Design of a Stage-Matched Intervention Trial to Increase Dual Method Contraceptive Use (Project PROTECT). Contemporary Clinical Trials.

Redding, C.A., Morokoff, P.J., Rossi, J.S., & Meier, K.S. (in press). A TTM-Tailored Condom Use Intervention for At-risk Women and Men. In T. Edgar, S. Noar, & V. Friemuth (Eds.) Communication Perspectives on HIV/AIDS for the 21st Century. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Sun, X., & Prochaska, J.O. (in press). Demographic Variables, Smoking Variables, and TTM-Tailored Outcomes Across Five studies of Adults. Health Psychology.

Rossi J.S. & Redding, C.A. (in press) Transtheoretical Model. Encyclopedia of Epidemiology.

Prochaska JJ, Hall SM, Tsoh JY, Eisendrath S, Rossi JS, Redding CA, Rosen AB, Meisner M, Humfleet GL, & Gorecki JA. (in press). Treating Tobacco Dependence in Smokers with Clinical Depression: Impact on Mental Health Functioning. American Journal of Public Health.

Mauriello, L.M., Rossi, J.S., Fava, J., Redding, C.A., Robbins, M., Meier, K.S., & Prochaska, J.O. (in press). Assessment of the Pros and Cons of Stress Management Among Adolescents: Development and Validation of a Decisional Balance Measure. American Journal of Health Promotion.

Norman, GJ, Adams, MA, Calfas, KJ, Covin, J, Sallis, JF, Rossi, JS, Redding, CA, Cella J, & Patrick, K. (in press). A randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent intervention for adolescent sun protection behaviors. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine.

Greene G.W. & Redding, C.A. (2007). Behavioral Theory-based Research. Ch. 22 in E. Monsen (Ed.)  Research: Successful Approaches 3rd Ed. Chicago, IL: American Dietetic Association.

Redding, C.A. Velicer, W.F., Evers, K.E., & Prochaska, J.O. (2007). Preventing Postpartum Relapse: Some New Approaches to Meeting the Challenge. In W. Hannöver, K. Röske, &  J.R. Thryian (Eds.), Smoking Cessation and Relapse Prevention in Women Post Partum. Minutes from the International Workshop in Greifswald, September 2005.  Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science Publishers. p. 96-112.

Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Anatchkova, M.D., Fava, J.L. & Prochaska, J.O. (2007). Identifying Cluster Subtypes for the Prevention of Adolescent Smoking Acquisition. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 228-247.

Anatchkova, M.D., Redding, C.A., & Rossi, J.S. (2007). Development and Validation of Transtheoretical Model Measures for Bulgarian Adolescent Nonsmokers. Substance Abuse and Misuse, 42, 23-41.

Redding, C.A., Maddock, J.E. & Rossi, J.S. (2006). The Sequential Approach to Measurement of Health Behavior Constructs: Issues in Selecting and Developing Measures. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, 4(1), 83-101.

Hoffman A, Redding CA, Goldberg DN, Ańel D, Prochaska JO, Meyer PM,& Pandey D. (2006). Computer Expert Systems for African American Smokers in Physicians' Offices: A Feasibility Study. Preventive Medicine, 43, 204-211.

Anatchkova, M.D., Redding, C.A., & Rossi, J.S. (2006). Factors associated with smoking cessation and risk of smoking initiation in Bulgarian youth. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, 4(2), 1–12.

Hoeppner B.B., Velicer W.F., Redding C.A., Rossi J.S., Prochaska J.O., Pallonen U.E., Meier K.S. (2006). Psychometric Evaluation of the Smoking Cessation Processes-of-Change Scale in an Adolescent Sample. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1363-1372.

Hall SM, Tsoh J, Prochaska J, Eisendrath S, Rossi JS, Redding CA, Rosen AB, Meissner M, Humfleet G, & Gorecki J. (2006). Treatment of depressed mental health outpatients for cigarette smoking: A randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Public Health, 96(10), 1808-1814.

Matteson, K.A., Peipert, J.F., Allsworth, J., Phipps, M.G., Redding, C.A. (2006). Unplanned Pregnancy: Does Past Experience Influence the Use of a Contraceptive Method? Obstetrics & Gynecology, 107, 121-127.

Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C.A. (2006). Tailored Communications for Smoking Cessation: Past Successes and Future Directions. Drug and Alcohol Review, 25, 49-57.

Anatchkova, M.D., Redding, C.A., & Rossi, J.S. (2006). Development and Validation of Decisional Balance and Temptations Measures for Bulgarian Adolescent Smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 31(1), 155-161.

Maddock, J.E., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S. & Weinstock, M. (2005). Development and Validation of an Appearance Motivation Attitudes Scale for Sun Protection. Psychology and Health, 20(6), 775-788.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer  W.F., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Goldstein, M., DePue, J., Greene, G.W., Rossi, S.R., Sun, X., Fava, J.L., Laforge, R., Rakowski, W. & Plummer, B.A. (2005). Stage-based Expert Systems to Guide A Population of Primary Care Patients to Quit Smoking, Eat Healthier, Prevent Skin Cancer and Receive Regular Mammograms. Preventive Medicine, 41, 406-416.

Haug N.A., Hall S.M., Prochaska J.J.,Rosen A.B., Tsoh JY, Humfleet G, Delucchi K., Rossi J.S., Redding C.A., & Eisendrath S. (2005). Acceptance of Nicotine Dependence Treatment among Currently Depressed Smokers. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 7(2), 217-224.

Hollis J.F., Polen M.R., Whitlock E.P., Lichtenstein E., Mullooly J., Velicer W.F., & Redding C.A. (2005). Teen REACH: Outcomes from a randomized controlled trial of a tobacco reduction program for teens seen in primary medical care. Pediatrics, 115(4), 981-989.

Prochaska, J.J., Sorensen, J. L., Hall, S.M., Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., Rosen, A.B., Eisendrath, S.J., & Meisner, M.R. (2005). Predictors of health functioning in two high-risk samples of smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 78, 169-175.

Prochaska, J.J., Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., Rosen, A.B., Tsoh, J.Y., Humfleet, G.L., Eisendrath, S.J., Meisner, M.R. & Hall, S.M. (2004). Depressed smokers and stage of change: Implications for treatment interventions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 76, 143-151.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer  W.F., Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., Greene, G.W., Rossi, S.R., Sun, X., Fava, J.L., Laforge, R. & Plummer, B.A. (2004). Impact of simultaneous stage-matched expert system interventions for smoking, high fat diet and sun exposure in a population of parents. Health Psychology, 23(5), 503-516.

Jordan, P.J., Redding, C.A., Troop, N.A., & Serpell, L. (2003). Developing a Measure for Assessing Recovery from Anorexia Nervosa Across Five Stages of Change. Eating Behaviors, 3(4), 365-385.

Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C.A., & Evers, K. (2002). The transtheoretical model and stages of change. Chapter 5 in K. Glanz, B.K. Rimer, & F.M. Lewis (Eds.) Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3rd edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. p. 99-120.

Noar, S.M., Morokoff, P.J. & Redding, C.A. (2002). Sexual Assertiveness in heterosexually active men: A test of three samples. AIDS Education and Prevention, 14(4), 330-342.

Weinstock, M.A., Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., & Maddock J.E. (2002). Randomized controlled community trial of the efficacy of a multicomponent stage-matched intervention to increase sun protection among beachgoers. Preventive Medicine, 35, 584-592.

Noar, S.M., Morokoff, P.J. & Redding, C.A. (2001). An examination of Transtheoretical predictors of condom use in a late-adolescent heterosexual men. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 6, 1-26.

Robbins, M.L., Levesque, D.A., Redding, C.A., Johnson, J.L., Prochaska, J.O., Rohr, M.S., & Peters, T.G. (2001). Assessing family members’ motivational readiness and decision making for consenting to cadaveric organ donation. Journal of Health Psychology, 6, 523-536.

McMahon, S.D., King, C., Mautz, B., Jason, L., Rossi, J.S., & Redding, C.A. (2001). Worksite interventions: A methodological exploration and pilot study promoting behavior change. Journal of Primary Prevention, 22(2), 103-119. 

Rossi, S.R., Greene, G.W., Rossi, J.S., Plummer, B.A., Benisovich, S.V., Keller, S., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Pallonen, U.E. & Meier, K.S. (2001). Validation of decisional balance and situational temptations measures for dietary fat reduction in a large school-based population of adolescents. Eating Behaviors, 2, 1-18.

Plummer, B.A., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Pallonen, U.E., & Meier, K.S. (2001). Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, and Temptations for smoking: Measurement and validation in a representative sample of adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 551-571.

Weinstock, M.A., Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., Maddock J.E., & Cottrill, S. (2000). Sun protection behaviors and stages of change for the primary prevention of skin cancers among beachgoers in Southeastern New England. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 286-293.

Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Fava, J.L., Rossi, J.S., Redding, C.A., LaForge, R.G., & Robbins, M.L. (2000). Using the Transtheoretical model for population-based approaches to health promotion and disease prevention. Homeostasis in Health and Disease, 40, 174-195.

Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Rossi, S.R., Prochaska, J.O., & Velicer, W.F. (2000). Health Behavior Models. In G.C. Hyner, K.W. Peterson, J.W. Travis, J.E. Dewey, J.J. Foerster, & E.M. Framer (Eds.), SPM Handbook of Health Assessment Tools. Pittsburg, PA: The Society of Prospective Medicine & The Institute for Health and Productivity Management reprinted in The International Electronic Journal of Health Education, 3 (Special Issue), 180-193. <

Willey, C., Redding, C.A., Stafford, J., Garfield, F., Geletko, S., Flanigan, T. Melbourne, K., Mitty, J. and Caro, J. (2000). Stages of change for adherence with medication regimens for chronic disease: Development and validation of a measure. Clinical Therapeutics, 22(7), 858-871.

Brown-Peterside, P., Redding, C.A., Ren, L., & Koblin, B.A. (2000). Acceptability of a stage-matched expert system intervention to increase condom use among women at high risk of HIV infection in New York City. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12(2), 171-181.

Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Pallonen, U.E., Rossi, J.S., Velicer, W.F., Rossi, S.R., Greene, G.W., Meier, K.S., Evers, K.E., Plummer, B.A., & Maddock, J.E.(1999). Transtheoretical individualized multimedia expert systems targeting adolescents’ health behaviors. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 6(2), 144-153.

Redding, C.A., & Rossi, J.S. (1999). Testing a model of situational self-efficacy for safer sex among college students: Stage and gender-based differences. Psychology and Health, 14(3), 467-486.

Harlow, L.L., Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., Velicer, W.F., Snow, M.G., Schnell, D., Galavotti, C., O'Reilly, K., & Rhodes, F. (1999). Stages of condom use in a high HIV-risk sample. Psychology and Health, 14, 143-157.

Bock, B.D., Marcus, B.H., Rossi, J.S., & Redding, C.A. (1998). Interrelationships between motivational readiness for physical activity, dietary change, and smoking cessation. American Journal of Health Behavior, 22(4), 248-258.

Evers, K.E., Harlow, L.L., Redding, C.A., & LaForge, R.G. (1998). Longitudinal changes in stages of change for condom use in women. American Journal of Health Promotion, 13(1), 19-25.

Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Fava, J.L., Norman, G.J., & Redding, C.A. (1998). Smoking and stress: Applications of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. Homeostasis, 38, 216-233.

Ruggiero, L., Redding, C.A., Rossi, J.S., & Prochaska, J.O. (1997). Helping women live smoke free: A stage-matched smoking cessation program for pregnant smokers. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 31-33.

Rossi, J.S., Blais, L.M., Redding, C.A., & Weinstock, M.A. (1995). Behavior change for reducing sun and ultraviolet light exposure: Implications for interventions. In M.A. Weinstock (Ed.), Dermatologic Clinics. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Prochaska, J.O., Redding, C.A., Harlow, L.L., Rossi, J.S., & Velicer, W.F. (1994). The Transtheoretical model and HIV prevention: A review. Health Education Quarterly, 21, 471-486.

Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Rossi, J.S., Goldstein, M.G., Marcus, B.H., Rakowski, W., Fiore, C., Harlow, L.L., Redding, C.A., Rosenbloom, D., & Rossi, S.R. (1994). Stages of change and decisional balance for twelve problem behaviors. Health Psychology, 13, 39-46.

Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Richmond, R., Greeley, J., & Swift, W. (1992). A time series investigation of three nicotine regulation models. Addictive Behaviors, 17, 325-345.

Fitts, S.N., Gibson, P., Redding, C.A., & Deiter, P. (1989). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Implications for its validity as a DSMIII-R clinical syndrome. Psychological Reports, 64, 655-658.

Redding, C.A. & Livneh, H. (1986). Manifest anxiety: A cluster analytic study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 471-474.

Livneh, H. & Redding, C.A. (1986). A factor analytic study of manifest anxiety: A trans-situational, trans-temporal investigation. The Journal of Psychology, 120, 253-263.


Technical Reports

Grimley D, Riley GE, Prochaska JO, Redding CA, Ruggiero L, Velicer WF, &  Rossi JS. (1992). Models of contraceptive and condom use in high risk women. Technical report to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, contract grant #CSA-92-109.

Prochaska JO, Harlow LL, Redding CA, Snow MG, Rossi JS, & Velicer WF. (1990). Models of behavior change for condom use: Preliminary Analyses in an AIDS-risking community sample. Technical report to the Centers for Disease Control, contract grant #0-4115-002.