The transtheoretical model is currently
conceptualized in terms of several major dimensions. The core constructs, around which the
other dimensions are organized, is the stages of
change. These represent ordered
categories along a continuum of motivational readiness to change a problem behavior.
Transitions between the stages of change are effected by a set of independent variables
known as the processes of change. The model also incorporates a series of intervening or
outcome variables. These include decisional balance (the pros and cons of change),
self-efficacy (confidence in the ability to change across problem situations), situational
temptations to engage in the problem behavior, and behaviors which are specific to the
problem area. Also included among these intermediate or dependent variables would be any
other psychological, environmental, cultural, socioeconomic, physiological, biochemical,
or even genetic variables or behavior specific to the problem being studied.
Selections of the text contained in these Trantheoretical Model pages
have been adapted from the following articles.
Janis, I. L., & Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: A
psychological analysis of conflict, choice, and commitment. London: Cassel &
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of
behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992).
In search of how people change. American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114.
Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., DiClemente, C. C., & Fava,
J. L. (1988). Measuring processes of change: Applications to the cessation of smoking. Journal
of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 520-528.
Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Rossi, J. S., Goldstein, M. G.,
Marcus, B. H., Rakowski, W., Fiore, C., Harlow, L. L., Redding, C. A., Rosenbloom, D.,
& Rossi, S. R. (1994). Stages of change and decisional balance for twelve problem
behaviors. Health Psychology, 13, 39-46.
Velicer, W. F., DiClemente, C. C., Prochaska, J. O., &
Brandenburg N. (1985). Decisional balance measure for assessing and predicting smoking
status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1279-1289.
Velicer, W. F., DiClemente, C. C., Rossi, J. S., & Prochaska,
J. O. (1990). Relapse situations and self-efficacy: An integrative model. Addictive
Behaviors, 15, 271-283.