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Scenes from the Cancer Prevention Research Center

Smoking: Adult Stage of Change (Short Form)


Are you currently a smoker?

  • Yes, I currently smoke
  • No, I quit within the last 6 months (ACTION STAGE)
  • No, I quit more than 6 months ago (MAINTENANCE STAGE)
  • No, I have never smoked (NONSMOKER)

(For smokers only) In the last year, how many times have you quit smoking for at least 24 hours?

(For smokers only) Are you seriously thinking of quitting smoking?

  • Yes, within the next 30 days (PREPARATION STAGE if they have one 24-hour quit attempt in the past year - refer to previous question... if no quit attempt then CONTEMPLATION STAGE)
  • Yes, within the next 6 months (CONTEMPLATION STAGE)
  • No, not thinking of quitting (PRECONTEMPLATION STAGE)



DiClemente, C.C., Prochaska, J.O., Fairhurst, S., Velicer, W.F., Rossi J.S., & Velasquez, M. (1991). The process of smoking cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contemplation and contemplation/action. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 295-304.

Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Prochaska, J.O., Abrams, D.B., Emmons, K.M., & Pierce, J. (1995). Distribution of smokers by stage in three representative samples. Preventive Medicine, 24, 401-411.