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Scenes from the Cancer Prevention Research Center

Smoking: Processes of Change (Short Form)


The following experiences can affect the smoking habits of some people. Think of any similar experiences you may be currently having or have had in the last month. Then rate the FREQUENCY of this event on the following five point scale.

1 = Never
2 = Seldom
3 = Occasionally
4 = Often
5 = Repeatedly


1. When I am tempted to smoke I think about something else. box
2. I tell myself I can quit if I want to.
3. I notice that nonsmokers are asserting their rights. box
4. I recall information people have given me on the benefits of quitting smoking. box
5. I can expect to be rewarded by others if I don't smoke. box
6. I stop to think that smoking is polluting the environment. box
7. Warnings about the health hazards of smoking move me emotionally. box
8. I get upset when I think about my smoking. box
9. I remove things from my home or place of work that remind me of smoking. box
10. I have someone who listens when I need to talk about my smoking. box
11. I think about information from articles and ads about how to stop smoking. box
12. I consider the view that smoking can be harmful to the environment. box
13. I tell myself that if I try hard enough I can keep from smoking. box
14. I find society changing in ways that makes it easier for nonsmokers. box
15. My need for cigarettes makes me feel disappointed in myself. box
16. I have someone I can count on when I'm having problems with smoking. box
17. I do something else instead of smoking when I need to relax. box
18. I react emotionally to warnings about smoking cigarettes. box


I keep things around my home or place of work that remind me not to smoke. box


I am rewarded by others if I don't smoke. box



Experiential Processes
   Consciousness Raising 4, 11
   Environmental  6, 12
   Self-Reevaluation 8, 15
   Social Liberation 3, 14
   Dramatic Relief 7, 18
Behavioral Processes
   Helping Relationships 10, 16
   Self-Liberation 2, 13
   Counterconditioning 1, 17
   Reinforcement  5, 20
   Stimulus Control 9, 19



Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., DiClemente, C.C., & Fava, J.L. (1988). Measuring the processes of change: Applications to the cessation of smoking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 520-528.