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Dr. Richard W. Scholl
36 Upper College Road
Kingston, RI 02881

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rscholl@uri.edu

Affective State

An affective state is a representation to the present emotional status being experienced by an individual. Individuals exist in, and move among, one of three Affective States:

          1. Positive Affective State- The individual is experiencing positive feelings, such as relaxation, excitement, pleasure, or joy.
          2. Neutral Affective State- The individual is experiencing little or no feelings at the present time.
          3. Negative Affective State- The individual is experiencing negative feelings and emotions such as emotional pain, anxiety, guilt, frustration, boredom, or anger
Affirmation

Affirmation or validation, as used in conjunction with self-concept motivation theory, is a degree to which social or task feedback is consistent with an individual's set of self perceptions. Feedback can be used to validate the individual's self-worth by signaling that the individual:

  1. is accepted and liked by members (validation of acceptance)
  2. is an important member in the functioning of the group (validation of worth)
  3. occupies a position of high respect or status within the group (validation of status)
  4. holds certain values that are important to the group (validation of values)
  5. is competent and is very good at something (validation of skills & competencies)

Affirmation generally leads to a positive affective state, while invalidation usually evokes a negative affective state.

Reference: Self Concept Motivation; Affective Motivation

Attitude

An attitude is a mental state that exerts influence on a person's response to people, objects, and situations. Attitudes represent or predisposition in terms of beliefs, perceptions, opinions, and feelings towards attitude objects. There are four components to an attitude:

  1. Cognitive Component- Consists of an individual's perception of facts, mental models (cause and effect beliefs), and opinions regarding the attitude object. Cognitions are often thought of as the rational and logical component of the attitude.
  2. Affective Component- Represents our feelings and emotions associated with the attitude object. These feelings are actually physiological responses to the people and situations.
  3. Evaluative Component- The summary component of the attitude in that this is where our cognitions and affect combined to form an overall positive or negative orientation towards the attitude object.
  4. Behavioral Intention- comprised of our intentions to act toward the attitude object. These might take the form of goals, plans and expectations regarding a particular person, organization, or object.

Reference: Ajzen, I. 2001. Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 52: 27-58.

AtTribution Theory

When individuals observe the behavior of others, they attempt to explain this behavior by determining its cause(s). We can make either internal attributions (personality, skills, motivation) or external attributions (luck, politics, situational constraints). Attribution Theory explains when we are likely to make internal versus external attributions. Internal attributions are likely when:

  1. The behavior is Distinctiveness, that is, do we observe the same behavioral pattern in a variety of situations or contexts (e.g., at work, at parties, etc.)?
  2. There is low Consensus, when the behavior is different from that of others in the same situation.
  3. We observe Consistency in the behavioral pattern across time.
  4. We do not see any viable external (situational) causes of the behavior (Externality).

Attribution Theory also suggests that we tend to make three typical attributional errors. These are:

  1. Fundamental Attributional Error- We tend to attribute behavior to internal rather than external causes, even when the cause is situational in nature.
  2. Actor-Observer Error- We tend to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes and the attribute our own behavior to external causes
  3. Self-serving Error- We tend to take credit for successes (self internal attribution), and blame failures on others, fate, bad luck, or factors beyond our control (self external attribution).

Reference:Kelly, H. H. 1971. Attribution in social interaction. New York: General Learning Press.

Behavioral Consistency

The concept of leadership styles and decision making styles imply that individuals act consistently. The concept of behavioral change also assumes some degree of behavioral consistency. In attempting to explain and predict employee behavior, we often think of two types of behavioral consistency:

  1. Cross Situational Behavioral Consistency (CSBC)- When individual respond the same way to issues across times and in many contexts or situations, they are exhibiting CSBC.
  2. Cross Individual Behavioral Consistency (CIBC)- CIBC exists when most individuals in a group or organization behavior in similar ways
Behavioral Gap

Also referred to as the Performance Gap, the Behavioral Gap is the difference (Gap) between desired or expected behavior/performance and actual or observed behavior/performance. The Behavioral Gap is the starting point in the problem identification stage of a behavioral problem solving process.

Reference: Behavioral Diagnosis

Behavioral requirements

All organizations must engender the following three patterns of behavior to survive:

Membership- Organizations must find ways to recruit and retain employees with the skills, knowledge, and growth potential to realize their competitive strategies. Difficulties in recruiting a high-quality work force and high levels of turnover of the company's best employees are results of a failure to satisfy the membership requirements of the company's employees. High levels of employee commitment is indication of successful strategies dealing with the employee membership decision.
Adequate Role Behavior (ARB)- Adequate Role Behavior consists of performing the tasks and minimum requirements specified in an individual's job description or developed through the psychological contract. ARB is successfully managed when individuals exhibit dependable behavior evidenced by meeting that quantitative and qualitative standards of performance for their jobs. An indication that the organization is not successfully managing ARB is when individuals are not performing all required tasks and functions, when individuals are continually negotiating down the minimal requirements of the job, and when the input side of the psychological contracts of individuals begins decline.
Extra Role Behavior (ERB)- Extra Role Behavior consists of performing tasks and functions beyond the minimal requirements of the job. ERB is also exhibited when individuals go well beyond the minimum quantitative and qualitative standards for their jobs. Individuals exhibiting ERB also take on additional responsibilities, engage in cooperative activities with other members, engage in behavior that is protective of the organization, offer creative solutions to organizational problems, continually attempt to improve their skills and competencies, and in general lookout for the well-being of the organization. ERB has also been referred to as Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

Reference:Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. 1966. The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley

Cognitive Style

The manner in which individuals collect, store, categorize, access, and process information in solving problems and making decisions. There are four dimensions of cognitive style. They are:

  1. Extraversion vs. Introversion
  2. Sensing vs. Intuition
  3. Thinking vs. Feeling
  4. Judging vs. Perceiving

Reference: Cognitive Style

Control Mechanisms: cultural

It is often pointed out that organizational cultural influences the behavior of organizational members. The degree to which this takes place can be related to the three dimensions of organizational culture defined by Kilmann, Saxton, & Serpa, (1986):

  1. The Direction of impact is the course that culture is causing organizations to follow. Does culture influence behavior so that organizational goals are accomplished, or does culture push members to behave in ways that are counter to the formal mission and goals of the organization?
  2. The Pervasiveness of impact is the degree to which the culture is widespread, or shared, among the members of a group
  3. The Strength of impact is the level of pressure that culture exerts on the members in the organization, regardless of direction.
    1. How strongly held or the social values?
    2. How committed our members to the shared mental models?
    3. How vigorously enforced other social norms?

The social mechanisms that function to reduce variability on the behavior of organizational members are:

  1. Social Norms
  2. Shared Values
  3. Shared Mental Models & Consensual Schema
  4. Social Identities

References: Kilmann, R. H., Saxton, M. J., & Serpa, R. 1986. Issues in understanding and changing culture. California Management Review, 28: 87-94.

Organizational Culture WebNotes

Control mechanism: Structural

Organizational Structure performs two basic social functions: Control and Coordination. The structural mechanisms that function to control behavior, that is, reduce variability between members are:

  1. Centralization
  2. Process control; formalization; behavioral control (Rule enforcement)
  3. Output control; results control; goal monitoring (Environmental pressure)
  4. Cloning (Shared values and expectations) see: Cultural Control Mechanisms above

Reference: Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. 1966. The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley

Coordinating Mechanisms

See Integrating Mechanisms

credibility

The extent to which we find a person or source of information believable. Credibility is a subjective assessment by an individual of another person or information source. It does not reside in the person or piece of information, but rather, it is perceived. The perception of credibility in enhanced when two key components are present:

  1. Trustworthiness is the degree to which a person believes the other person is truthful, unbiased, and is not attempting to mislead. See: Trust
  2. Expertise is a function of the degree to which the other person is believed to be knowledgeable, competent, and experienced.
Decisional balance

A decision making model that posits that individuals use a mental "balance sheet" in choosing between alternative actions in which they weigh the "pros" and "cons" of each option. Janis & Mann (1977) suggested that four criteria are used in this process. They are:

  1. Instrumental Gains for Self (Instrumental)
  2. Instrumental Gains for Others (Goal Internalization)
  3. Approval from Self (Self Concept Internal)
  4. Approval from Others (Self Concept External)

The Source of Motivation Model has also been used to provide the criteria set. Sources are indicated in blue above. When using the SMM, Intrinsic Process Motivation is added to the above list

Reference: Janis, I. L., & Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice and commitment. New York: Free Press.

Expectancy Theory

A cognitive process theory of motivation which explains the process by which individuals make choices among behavioral alternatives. It predicts they each behavioral alternative can be represented by a motivational Force (MF). Motivational Force is a function of individuals Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence with respect to each behavior alternative. This relationship is represented by the equation: MF= Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valance where:

  1. Expectancy (E is the belief that one's effort (E) will result is attainment of desired performance (P) goals.
  2. Instrumentality is the belief that if one does meet performance expectations, he or she will receive a greater reward.
  3. Valance refers the value the individual personally places on the rewards. This is a function of his or her needs, goals, and values.

References:

Vroom, V. H. 1964. Work and Motivation. New York: McGraw Hill.
Porter, L. W., & Lawler, E. E. 1968. Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.

Expectancy Theory of Motivation WebNotes

Feedback

Most models of motivation (i.e., expectancy theory, reinforcement theory) argue that employee behavior is, in part, a function of the feedback employees receive about their performance and behavior. There are two fundamental types of information attributable their performance and the quality of their work:

  1. Task Feedback- is feedback about one's performance that is received directly from observation of results (Often called Knowledge of Results-KOR). Seeing a completed construction project, hearing your time in a race, your score on an exam are examples of Task Feedback.
  2. Social Feedback- is feedback you receive about tasks, projects, and performance in general from other people. This represents the subjective evaluation of your behavior by others. Social Feedback can come in two forms:
    1. Direct Social Feedback involves statements by others about your performance, competencies, traits or values. "You did an excellent job on this project," "You are an excellent writer," or "You're really dedicated to this project" are examples of Direct Social Feedback.
    2. Indirect Social Feedback is derived from observation or the behavior, actions and decisions of others. It involves interpretation of the meaning of these behaviors in terms of your and your performance. "They don't like me because they never ask me to lunch," "He respects my expertise on computers because he always comes to me when he has a computer problem," or "She doesn't trust me because she is always checking up on me" are examples of Indirect Social Feedback.
Frustration Instigated Behavior

An acognitive model of behavior that explains behaviors which are unlikely to lead to goal attainment or to satisfy unmet needs. Frustration-Instigated-Behavior (FIB) can be viewed as a form of emotional hijacking whereby the individual responses to an emotional trigger with an automatic, conditioned behavioral response (as opposed to a reasoned, cognitively processed behavioral response. Frustration is viewed as a strong negative affective state that the individual feels pressure to relieve. The existence of frustration (as an affective state) is generally the result of a blockage or conflict in the satisfaction of a need. One way to conceptualize this block is to use the Expectancy Motivational Framework. An individual may experience blockage in either Expectancy (E --> P) or Instrumentality (P --> R). Individuals differ in the number of unsuccessful attempts or amount of non-reinforced effort required to trigger the Frustrated Emotional State (Emotional Trigger --> Emotional Response)

  1. Expectancy Blockage- The individual experiences difficulty in obtaining desired results or in meeting performance goals despite repeated attempts.
  2. Instrumentality Blockage- The individual does not received expected rewards (pay increase, promotion, job assignment, etc.) despite the accomplishment of performance goals or expected levels of performance.

While individuals differ in their tolerance for FIB (Emotional Response --> Behavioral Response), when FIB reaches a certain level, people exhibit one of four characteristic behavioral responses:

  1. Aggression is behavior characterized as attack against a person or object. The target of this attack may be:
    1. Direct- against the person or object believed to block need satisfaction. Passive-aggression, whereby the frustrated individual attempts to "attack" the person blocking satisfaction by appearing to comply or act according to exact orders, is a form of direct aggression.
    2. Displaced- directed toward a scapegoat or uninvolved, convenient target.
  2. Regression behaviors are behavioral responses that are child-like in nature.
  3. Fixation is the performance of the same responses over and over again although they do not result in any observable progress towards goals or need satisfaction.
  4. Resignation is characterized by passivity, inactivity, or disinterest in continuing action
Functional Imperatives

Model originally proposed by Talcott Parsons in which he stated that there are four functions that must be performed if an organization or group is to succeed. These four functional imperatives are:

  1. Adaptation- The ability of the organization to make changes necessary to meet the demands imposed on it by external stakeholders.
  2. Goal Attainment- The ability of the organization to continuously meet its goals and satisfy external stakeholders.
  3. Integration- The ability of the organization to coordinate the various interdependent units (departments, people, etc.) into a unified whole. This involves communication and conflict resolutions among these units.
  4. Latency- The ability to maintain the membership and morale or organizational participants.

Reference: Parson, T., & Smelser, N. J. 1957. Economy and Society. New York: The Free Press.

Influence Zones

We can define resistance to control operationally using the Influence Zones Approach. Every directive, request or command issued by a leader is not the same in the eyes of the employee. Some requests involve behaviors the employee would do on his or her own, while other directives would not be carried out under any circumstances. Below is a model that describes the degree of resistance a leader could encounter to various requests. The lower down on the list, the greater the resistance. The greater resistance, the more power the leader must have in relation to target to insure compliance.

  1. Preference Zone- Behaviors in the preference zone are those behaviors and activities the target actually enjoys doing and would probably do with any request.
  2. Indifference Zone- These behaviors represent activities for which the target has no preference and is indifferent to. For example, if an employee really does not care if she is assigned to the Boston office or the Providence office, this decision would lie in the indifference zone.
  3. Legitimate Zone- These are behaviors which the target would rather not do but recognizes that it his or her responsibility, as an employee to do when asked. The represent what is called Adequate Role Behavior, which defines the lower limits of acceptance work performance.
  4. Influence Zone- Behaviors in the influence zone represent tasks and activities which the target views as outside his or her normal work duties and responsibilities. To carry out these directives would mean going beyond job requirements and as such are terms Extra Role Behaviors. While the individual perceives these activities as extra roles, he or she can be motivated to perform if the proper source of motivation is tapped by the leader.
  5. Non-Influence Zone- These are behaviors in which the target would not engage under any work related circumstances.

Reference: Barbuto, John E,. Jr. Comparing Leaders' ratings to targets' self-reported resistance to task assignments: An extension of Chester Barnard's zones of indifference (2000). Psychological Reports, 86, 611-621.

Interdependence

Most organizations accomplish complex tasks through the process known as the division of labor whereby the entire task is broken down into subtasks or sub functions. The process in which these parts or combined to accomplish the entire task is known as integration of coordination. The nature of the dependence and interdependence of the component parts of a task or an organization can be described in terms of three Types of Interdependence:

  1. Pooled Interdependence- Each part of the task or organization contributes in a discrete manner to the whole and each part is supported by the whole. Task accomplishes or organizational effectiveness is dependent upon each component's independence contribution (e.g., branches of a bank)
  2. Sequential Interdependence- Each component is related serially to other components whereby the outputs of one component become the inputs of another component. The first component must perform adequately before the next can act (e.g., stations in an assembly line)
  3. Reciprocal Interdependence- This form of interdependence occurs when the outputs of each component become the inputs for the others (e.g., new product development team).

Reference: Thompson, J. D. 1967. Organizations and Action. New York: McGraw-Hill.

INtegrating Mechanisms

Cross Functional Integration Mechanisms- These are arranged in order of increased cost, but increased effectiveness as well. Thus the Hierarchy requires the least amount of additional resources, but becomes the weakest mechanism when increased complexity (amount of reciprocal interdependence) exits.

  1. Hierarchy- Cross functional communication is achieved through a mutual superior. Conflict among functional units is resolved through mutual supervisor.
  2. Direct Contact- When the chain of command get overburdened individual begin communicating directly with counterpart in other functional departments. This has a tendency to speed up decision processes..
  3. Liaison Role- A Facilitator, expediter, project manager, etc. is appointed to smooth conflicts and encourage communication among those working on a single project or product. No formal base of power. Must rely on building identification with the project (referent power). Also tends to get work done through reciprocity (exchange of favors).
  4. Task Groups- The project manager now is assigned specific individuals from the various functional units to work with on the project. The team meets regularly and motivation is achieved through identification with the team. Increased communication is achieved though regular meetings. The conflict mediation, or facilitation skills of the team leader are an essential part of the success of this mechanism. The leader must focus on both team goals and functional member interests to be effective.
  5. Integrating Role- The titles may be the same, (project manager, expediter, etc.) however, this individual is given increased power through the allocation of resources. In all other mechanisms, resources are distributed among functional departments. In this case, resources are divided between functional managers and project managers. The project manager gain increased power through his/her ability to allocate resources.
  6. Integrating Department- This is a task group with a budget.
  7. Matrix Structure- Here there is a theoretical balance of power between the functional manager and the project manager. They both have budgets and influence over personnel decisions. It is designed to force a conflict between the functional manger's desire for quality, and the project managers push for time and service. It also takes advantage of economies of scale, necessary to hold down costs, by encouraging the fluid deployment and re-deployment of expertise to projects as needed.

The Other side of the Continuum (Between matrix and divisional). We find a mirror image, however on this side power rests with the divisional manager with functional managers acting as advisors and facilitators.

References:
Galbraith, J. R., & Nathanson, D. A. 1978. Strategy Implementation: The Role of Structure and Process. St. Paul: West.
Mintzberg, H. 1979. The Structuring of Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Organizational Structure WebNotes

Leadership Style

Individuals in leadership positions generally exhibit a fairly consistent pattern of behavior in performing the leadership functions of decision making, influence, and group maintenance. These consistent patterns of behaviors are known as leadership styles. Each dimension of leadership style exists along a continuum ranging from one extreme of the style to the other. For each leadership function there has developed a way to describe this continuum. These are:

  1. Decision Making- A leader's decision making/problem solving style ranges from Autocratic to Participative.
  2. Influence- Leaders use various approaches to influence or motivate their group members. These approaches have been described as ranging from Transactional to Transformational
  3. Group Maintenance- The relative emphasis placed by the leader on task/goal accomplish has been described as the Task versus Social-Emotional dimension of leadership style. This dimension has also been referred to as the Initiating Structure versus Consideration and the Production versus People dimension.

References: Leadership Styles; Leader Behavior

Motivational Types

Three Types of Work Motivation:

Type I Motivation- Extrinsic Motivation- In pure extrinsic motivation the task is either yellow or red, that is, the task is providing no direct source of motivation. Individuals engage in these neutral or distasteful tasks because they expect some form of extrinsic reward (e.g., pay, promotion, time off, a good grade, etc.) as a result of performance of this activity. In Type I motivation, engagement in the task can be viewed as a cost with the expected extrinsic reward being the benefit. For Type I motivation to occur, individuals must perceive that the rewards are greater than the cost. Therefore, the more emotionally or physically unpleasing the task is, the greater the extrinsic reward must be to motivate individuals to perform these tasks.
Type II Motivation- Intrinsic Outcome Motivation- Like Type I motivation, in Type II motivation the task is either yellow or red. Individuals engage in these tasks because they believe that performance, or achieving some desired outcome, will result in some form of intrinsic satisfaction. This might take the form of self-concept external motivation, self-concept internal motivation, or goal identification. When individuals believe that doing these yellow or red activities will lead to external validation, self-concept external motivation is involved Self-concept internal motivation is involved when individuals perform undesirable activities to validate their own perceptions of competency or values. Individuals performing these types of activities because they believe these activities will eventually benefit others are motivated by goal internalization. Whatever the type of intrinsic outcome and how satisfying this outcome might be, performance of the activities or tasks still represent a cost to the individual which must be overcome by the expected intrinsic satisfaction derived from external validation, internal validation, or seeing others benefit from these activates When the expected intrinsic satisfaction does not materialize, Type II motivation declines.
Type III Motivation- Intrinsic Process Motivation- Activities motivated through Type III motivation are green tasks. These activities are often engaged in regardless of the outcome or expected results. Motivation to engage in these tasks is solely based on the expectation of continued enjoyment or pleasure.

Psychological Contract

An individual's overall set of expectations regarding what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide a return. While a job description may provide the initial basis for what individuals expect to contribute to the organization, role expectations increase and decline over time has individuals turn the formal jobs into their own based on their level of motivation and commitment. Likewise, expectations of what the organization will provide may start was a formal contract, but are often expanded as promises are made to individuals.

Self Concept

The self concept is a collection of perceptions individuals hold about themselves. It is comprised of a number of components including:

  1. Social Identity- the role that individuals assume in each of their reference groups
  2. Self Perception- cognitions one hold about his or her traits, values and competencies (self efficacy). These perceptions can be:
    1. High vs. Low
    2. Strong vs. Weak
  3. Self Esteem- Affective (see attitude components) orientation to one's self
  4. Self Worth- Overall evaluation (see attitude components) of one's self

Reference: Self Concept Motivation Model

Self Efficacy

An individual's belief about his or her ability to perform a specific task successfully or effectively.

Reference: Bandura, A. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Social Capital

Social capital has been defined by Nahapiet & Ghoshal (1998, p.243), "the sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through and derived from the networks of relationships possessed by an individual of social unit." They define three interrelated clusters of facets associated with social capital. These include:

  1. Structural- This term describes the impersonal configuration of linkages between people or units. The overall pattern of connections between actors- that is, who you reach and how your reach them. Among the most important facets of this dimension are:
    1. the presence or absence of network ties between actors
    2. network configuration
    3. morphology

      Measures include:

  • density
  • connectivity
  • hierarchy
  • appropriable organization
  1. Relational- Relational Embeddedness describes the kinds of personal relationships that people have developed with each other through a history of interactions.
    1. Affective orientation to other actors (+,0,-)
    2. Respect, friendships, trust
    3. "It is through these personal relationships that people fulfill such social motives as sociability, approval and prestige."

    Among key facets in this cluster are:

    • trust and trustworthiness
    • norms and sanctions
    • obligations and expectations
    • identity and identification
  2. Cognitive- Shared representations, interpretations, and systems of meaning among parties
    1. Shared language and codes and mental models

Reference: Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. 1998. Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2): 242-266

Sources of Motivation

The Sources of Motivation Model categorizes employee into five general types. These are:

  1. Intrinsic Process Motivation- Motivation derived through the task or activity itself. The task or activity is pleasurable or enjoyable independent of the ultimate results achieved from performing the task.
  2. Instrumental- Behaviors are motivated by the expectation of an extrinsic reward or outcome such as increased pay or a promotion.
  3. Self Concept External- This source of motivation is derived by the need of individuals for external validation of their social identity, core competencies and core values. Individuals engage in behaviors that are likely to increase acceptance, worth and status within their reference groups. Self worth is viewed through the eyes of others and is high when the individual is perceived to be valued by others.
  4. Self Concept Internal- Achievement and reinforcement of personal standards are the bases of this source of motivation. Individuals are motivated towards task feedback and accomplishment of goals that validate their core competencies and values. Individual self worth is seen as a function of behavioral correspondence to core values (e.g., one must always do his or her best) and standards of personal excellence.
  5. Goal Identification/Internalization- The focus of motivation moves from the individual to greater social group as the individual is motivated to achieve goals and meets the needs of others independent of validatation of personal attributes. Self worth is seen as a function of the good one does for others.

References: Leonard, N. H., Beauvais, L. L., & Scholl, R. W. 1999. Work motivation: The incorporation of self based processes.Human Relations, 52: 969-998.
Sources of Motivation Model; Self Concept Motivation Model

Strong Situation

A strong situation is characterized by the following three conditions related to the behavior of the individual:

  • Consequences: There are highly valued positive or negative outcomes perceived to be associated with behavior in the situation.
  • Likelihood: There is a high perceived probability that these consequences will follow behavior (e.g., "I am certain that if I swear at my boss, she will fire me")
  • Specificity: Required behavior is well defined and understood by the individual (e.g., "Wear a black tuxedo" is more specific than "dress appropriately")

The greater the degree to which these three conditions exist (from the perspective of individual) the stronger situation, and the more likely that he or she will behave according to the expectations of others as opposed to his or her own values and preferences. A weak situation is characterized by the lack of these elements. In weak situations, the individual's personality, values, and attitudes are more likely to predict behavior.

TransTheoretical Model

A model of behavioral change that posits that individuals go through five stages in changing from one behavioral pattern to another. These stages are:

  1. Precontemplation is the stage at which there is no intention to change behavior in the foreseeable future. Many individuals in this stage are unaware of problems are a need for change
  2. Contemplation is the stage in which individuals have identified a problem. In this stage they are deciding whether or not there is a need to take act to correct the problem.
  3. Preparation is a stage entered into once the individual decides there is a need to take some action. Specific plans of action are developed in this stage as the individual choose among alternative potential solutions.
  4. Action is the stage in which individuals put their plans into action and change their behavioral patterns.
  5. Maintenance is the stage in which people work to prevent relapse and consolidate the gains attained during action.

References: Detailed Overview of Model; TTM Web Notes

Trust

Trust is the willingness of one party in a relationship to make himself or herself vulnerable to another party. Trust has been defined as; (a) The level of openness that exists between two people; (b) The degree to which one person feels assured that another will not take malevolent or arbitrary actions, and (c) The extent to which one person can expect predictability in the other's behavior in terms of what is "normally" expected of a person action in good faith. Trust and control are functional alternatives in a relationship. That is, the more trust between two people that less the need to control the actions and decisions of the other. Likewise, the less trust, the greater the need for control. Trust can be thought of as developing in stages:

Level 1- Trust that the other party is being truthful. When he or she give you information, your belief that he or she believes this information to be true. You believe the pother person is basically honest and will tell the truth regardless of the consequences.
Development and Indicators- The individual :

  • is honest in discussing problems
  • Straight forward
  • doesn't hide problems
  • not afraid to speak his piece

Level 2- You believe that the other party will honor his or her commitments; do what he or she says he or she will do.
Development and Indicators- The individual :

  • is predictable in his or her behavior

Level 3- You trust the other's ability, competency, and judgment. You have faith in his or her ability to do what he or she says he or she will do.
Development and Indicators- The individual :

  • Trust in the other's functional or specific competence
  • Trust in the other's interpersonal competence
  • Trust in the other's general business sense
  • Trust in the other's ability to make good judgments in his work and behavior

Level 4- You trust the motives of the other. You know what he or she stands for and you believe that he or she is committed to behaving in ways consistent with his or her values.
Development and Indicators- The individual :

  • shows commitment to important values by consistently applying them to his or her actions and decisions
  • has demonstrated the willingness to make personal sacrifices rather than violate these values

Level 5- You have total confidence that the other person will look out for your interests and will not knowingly do anything to hurt you.
Development and Indicators- The individual :

  • would not violet confidence or divulge potentially harmful information

Reference: Athos, Anthony G. & Gabarro, John J. (1978). Interpersonal behavior: Communications and understanding in relationships. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Types of Tasks

I use the following shortcuts in describing tasks (These are my terms and you will not find reference to them anywhere in the management literature, but I find them helpful):

  • Green Tasks are tasks or activities we find physically and/or emotionally pleasurable or enjoyable. In other words, the individual is having fun purely from engaging in these behaviors. Tasks may be perceived as green to individuals because while they engaging in this task, their social identities are being validated in some as they are engaged in the activity. In other words, they are received affirming task or social feedback as they are performing, as opposed to receiving this feedback at the conclusion of the activity. Another way of looking at Green Tasks is that they are task in which the individual is in a Positive Affective State while engaging in these tasks. What is a green task for some might not be for others. For example, while I might find skiing to be a green task, some of you might find it stressful and cold and not find any enjoyment in the activity.
  • Yellow Tasks are activities that are neutral in terms of physical and emotional pleasure. While the individual does not find these tests enjoyable, he or she is not uncomfortable, bored, or stressed while engaging in these activities. The individual is in a Neural Affective State when engaged in these activities.
  • Red Tasks are those activities and behaviors that you find distasteful in some way. You might be physically uncomfortable while engaging in these tasks, or engaging in these activities by result in some form of emotional discomfort (Negative Affective State) such as stress/anxiety, boredom, anger, frustration, etc.

validation

See Affirmation

Values

An individual's values are a representation of his or her relative preferences for outcomes or courses of action. They reflect a sense of right or wrong and appropriateness of behavior. "Principles" is another term used to reflect these broad preferences. Values have been classified into two types:

  1. Terminal Values- Preferences concerning "ends" to be achieved.  When an individual can no long answer the question of "why" with "because..", a terminal value has been reached.
  2. Instrumental Values represent the "means" an individual prefers for achieving important "ends."

A similar distinction can be made between the two fundamental ways in which individuals assess or attach value to things. The two methods of evaluating value are the assessments of merit and worth.

  1. Merit is intrinsic and context-free value. This is value in its own right, independent of possible applications, utility, or uses. A scholar of Middle Eastern cultures and religions know as the preeminent expert in this field may be evaluated high in terms of merit despite the fact that her university has not program or course utilizing this expertise.
  2. Worth is extrinsic and context-determined value. This is value based on application or usefulness in solving a problem or accomplishment of a goal. The worth of the same scholar would increase as the demand to courses in this field increases to the point that the university feels compelled to offer them

 
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